Mineral Evolution and Mineral Ecology


Hazen, R.M., and Morrison, S.M. (2021) Mineralogical environments of the Hadean Eon: Templates for the Origins of Life? In: A. Neubeck and S. McMahon, Eds., Prebiotic Chemistry and the Origin of Life. Springer. In press.

Hazen, R.M., and Morrison, S.M. (2021) On the paragenetic modes of minerals: A mineral evolution perspective. American Mineralogist, in press.


Morrison, S.M., Buongiorno, J., Downs, R.T., Eleish, A., Fox, P., Giovannelli, D., Golden, J.J., Hummer, D.R., Hystad, G., Kellogg, L.H., Kreylos, O., Krivovichev, S.V., Liu, C., Prabhu, A., Ralph, J., Runyon, S.E., Zahirovic, S., and Hazen, R.M. (2020) Exploring carbon mineral systems: Recent advances in C mineral evolution, mineral ecology, and network analysis. Frontiers in Earth Sciences. DOI: 10.3389/feart.2020.00208



Hystad, G., Morrison, S.M., and Hazen, R.M. (2019) Statistical analysis of mineral evolution and mineral ecology: the current state and a vision for the future, Applied Computing and Geoscience, 1, 100005 (5 pp.). DOI: 10.1016/j.acags.2019.100005

Grew, E.S., Hystad, G., Toapanta, M., Eleish, A., Ostroverkhova, A., Golden, J., and Hazen, R.M. (2019) Lithium mineral evolution and ecology: Comparison with boron and beryllium. European Journal of Mineralogy, 31, 755- 774. DOI: 10.1127/ejm/2019/0031-2862

Hazen, R.M. and Zalaziewski, J. (2019) 2.1 Rock components—Synthetic mineral-like compounds. In: J. Zalaziewski, C.N. Waters, M. Williams, and C. Summerhayes [Editors] The Anthropocene as a Geologic Unit. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp.42-46.

Hazen, R.M., Bromberg, Y., Downs, R.T., Eleish, A., Falkowski, P.G., Fox, P., Giovannelli, D., Hummer, D.R., Hystad, G., Golden, J.J., Knoll, A.H., Li, C., Liu, C., Moore, E.K., Morrison, S.M., Muscente, A.D., Prabhu, A., Ralph, J., Rucker, M.Y., Runyon, S.E., Warden, L.A., Zhong, H. (2019) Deep carbon through deep time: Data-driven insights. In: B. Orcutt, I. Danielle, R. Dasgupta [eds], Deep Carbon: Past to Present. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp.320-352.  DOI: 10.1017/9781108677950.020

Hazen, R.M., Downs, R.T., Elesish, A., Fox, P., Gagné, O., Golden, J.J., Grew, E.S., Hummer, D.R., Hystad, G., Krivovichev, S.V., Li, C., Liu, C., Ma, X., Morrison, S.M., Pan, F., Pires, A.J., Prabhu, A., Ralph, J., Runyon, S.E., and Zhong, H. (2019) Data-driven discovery in mineralogy: Recent advances in data resources, analysis, and visualization. China Engineering, 5, 397-405.  DOI: 10.1016/j.eng.2019.03.006

Hystad, G., Eleish, A., Downs, R.T., Morrison, S.M., and Hazen, R.M. (2019) Bayesian estimation of Earth’s undiscovered mineralogical diversity using noninformative priors. Mathematical Geosciences, 51, 401-417. DOI: 10.1007/s11004-019-09795-8

Liu, C., Runyon, S.E., Knoll, A.H., and Hazen, R.M. (2019) The same and not the same: Ore geology, mineralogy and geochemistry of Rodinia assembly versus other supercontinents. Earth Science Reviews, 196, 102860 (33 p.). DOI: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2019.05.004



Hazen, R.M. (2018) Titan mineralogy: Insights on organic mineral evolution. American Mineralogist, 103, 341-342.  DOI: 10.2138/am-2018-6407

Liu, C., Eliesh, A., Hystad, G., Golden, J.J., Downs, R.T., Morrison, S.M., Hummer, D.R., Ralph, J.P., Fox, P., and Hazen, R.M., (2018) Analysis and visualization of vanadium mineral diversity and distribution. American Mineralogist, 103, 1080-1086.  DOI: 10.2138/am-2018-6274

Morrison, S.M., Runyon, S.E., and Hazen, R.M. (2018) The paleomineralogy of the Hadean Eon revisited. Life, 8, 64.  DOI: 10.3390/life8040064



Hystad, G., Downs, R.T., Hazen, R.M., and Golden, J.J. (2017) Relative abundances for the mineral species on Earth: A statistical measure to characterize Earth-like planets based on Earth’s mineralogy.Mathematical Geosciences, 49(2), 179-194.

Hummer, D.R., Noll, B.C., Hazen, R.M., and Downs, R.T. (2017) Crystal chemistry of abelsonite, the only known crystalline geoporphyrin. American Mineralogist, 102, 1129-1132.

Hazen, R.M., Grew, E.S., Origlieri, M, and Downs, R.T. (2017) On the mineralogy of the “Anthropocene Epoch.” American Mineralogist, 102, 595-611.

Hazen, R.M., Hystad, G., Golden, J.J., Hummer, D.R., Liu, C., Downs, R.T., Morrison, S.M., Ralph, J., and Grew, E.S. (2017) Cobalt mineral ecology. American Mineralogist, 102, 108-116.

Grew, E.S., G. Hystad, R.M. Hazen, S.V. Krivovichev, and L.A. Gorelova (2017) How many boron minerals occur in Earth’s upper crust? American Mineralogist, 102,1573-1587. DOI: 10.2138/am-2017-5897

Liu, C., Hystad, G., Golden, J.J., Hummer, D.R., Downs, R.T., Morrison, S.M., Grew, E.S., and Hazen, R.M. (2017) Chromium mineral ecology. American Mineralogist, 102, 612-619.

Morrison, S.M., Liu, C., Eleish, A., Prabhu, A., Li, C., Ralph, J., Downs, R.T., Golden, J.J., Fox, P., Hummer, D.R., Meyer, M.B., and Hazen, R.M. (2017) Network analysis of mineralogical systems. American Mineralogist,

102,1588-1596. DOI: 10.2138/am-2017-6104

Krivovichev, S.V., Krivovichev, V.G., and Hazen, R.M. (2018) Structural and chemical complexity of minerals: correlations and time evolution. European Journal of Mineralogy, 30, 231-236. https://doi.org/10.1127/ejm/2018/00302694.

Liu, C., Knoll, A., and Hazen, R.M. (2017) Geochemical and mineralogical evidence that Rodinia was unique. Nature Communications, 8, 1950. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-02095-x 



Grew ES, Krivovichev SV, Hazen RM, Hystad G (2016) Evolution of structural complexity in boron minerals. Canadian Mineralogist 54(1):125-143



Hazen RM, Grew ES, Downs RT, Golden J, Hystad G (2015) Mineral ecology: Chance and necessity in the mineral diversity of terrestrial planets. Canadian Mineralogist 53(2):295-324

Hazen RM, Hystad G, Downs RT, Golden J, Pires A, Grew ES (2015) Earth’s “missing” minerals. American Mineralogist 100:2344-2347

Hazen RM (2015) Mineral evolution, the Great Oxidation Event, and the rise of colorful minerals. Mineralogical Record 46(6):805-812,834

Hystad G, Downs RT, Hazen RM (2015) Mineral Species Frequency Distribution Conforms to a Large Number of Rare Events Model: Prediction of Earth’s “Missing” Minerals. Mathematical Geosciences 47:647-661

Hystad G, Downs RT, Grew ES, Hazen RM (2015) Statistical analysis of mineral diversity and distribution: Earth’s mineralogy is unique. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 426:154-157

Grew ES, Dymek RF, De Hoog JCM, Harley SL, Boak JM, Hazen RM, Yates MG (2015) Boron isotopes in tourmaline from the 3.7-3.8 Ga Isua Belt, Greenland: Sources for boron in Eoarchean continental crust and seawater. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 163:156-177



Grew ES, Hazen RM (2014) Beryllium mineral evolution. American Mineralogist 99:999-1021

Hazen RM (2014) Data-driven abductive discovery in mineralogy. American Mineralogist 99:2165-2170

Hazen RM, Liu X-M, Downs RT, Golden J, Pires AJ, Grew ES, Hystad G, Estrada C, Sverjensky DA (2014) Mineral evolution: Episodic metallogenesis, the supercontinent cycle, and the co-evolving geosphere and biosphere. Economic Geology, Special Publication 18:1-15

Hazen RM (2014) Mineral fodder. Aeon Magazine (published online 6/24/14) 7 p



Hazen RM (2013) Paleomineralogy of the Hadean Eon: A preliminary list. American Journal of Science 313:807-843

Hazen RM (2013) The Story of Earth: The First 4.5 Billion Years, from Stardust to Living Planet. Softcover edition. (Penguin, New York) 306 p

Hazen RM, Jones A, Kah L, Sverjensky DA (2013) Carbon mineral evolution. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 75:79-107

Golden J, McMillan M, Downs RT, Hystad G, Goldstein I, Stein HJ, Zimmerman A, Sverjensky DA, Armstrong J, Hazen RM (2013) Rhenium variations in molybdenite (MoS2): Evidence for progressive subsurface oxidation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 366:1-5

Hazen RM (2013) Mineral evolution. McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology 2013 (McGraw-Hill, New York) pp 247-249

Hazen RM, Sverjensky DA, Azzolini D, Bish DL, Elmore S, Hinnov L, Milliken RE (2013) Clay mineral evolution. American Mineralogist 98:2007-2029

Grew ES, Hazen RM (2013) Evolution of the minerals of beryllium. Stein 4-19. Also 2014 Norwegian language version (Kristiansen R, translator) Evolusjon av Berylliummineraler, Stein 4-20.



Hazen RM (2012) The Story of Earth: The First 4.5 Billion Years, from Stardust to Living Planet. (Viking, New York) 306 p. Foreign language: Spanish, Japanese, Korean, Russian, Polish, and Czech editions.

Hazen RM, Golden J, Downs RT, Hystad G, Grew ES, Azzolini D, Sverjensky DA (2012) Mercury (Hg) mineral evolution: A mineralogical record of supercontinent assembly, changing ocean geochemistry, and the emerging terrestrial biosphere. American Mineralogist 97:1013-1042

Hazen RM, Papineau D (2012) Mineralogcial co-evolution of the geosphere and biosphere. Fundamentals of Geobiology, eds Knoll AH, Canfield DE, Konhauser KO (Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford) pp 333-350



Grew ES, Bada JL, Hazen RM (2011) Borate minerals and the origin of the RNA world. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 41:307-316 [pdf]

Hazen RM, Bekker A, Bish DL, Bleeker W, Downs RT, Farquhar J, Ferry JM, Grew ES, Knoll AH, Papineau D, Ralph JP, Sverjensky DA, Valley JW (2011) Needs and opportunities in mineral evolution research. American Mineralogist 96:953-963 [pdf]

Hazen RM, Papineau D (2011) Mineral evolution of terrestrial planets. A Geobiology Reader, eds Knoll AH, Canfield DE, Konhauser KO.

Hazen RM (2011) What's new in mineral evolution. Italy Symposium publication.



Hazen RM (2010) The evolution of minerals. Scientific American 3:58-65

Hazen RM and Ferry JM (2010) Mineral evolution: Mineralogy in the fourth dimension. Elements 6(1):9-12 [pdf] 

Hazen RM and Eldredge E (2010) Themes and variations in complex systems. Elements 6(1):43-46 [pdf]



Hazen RM (2009) Les mineraux evoluent aussi. La Recherche 430:60-63

Hazen RM (2009) The descent of minerals. Science Donga 282:54-59 (in Korean)

Hazen RM, Ewing R, Sverjensky D (2009) The evolution of uranium and thorium minerals. American Mineralogist 94(10):1293-1311 [pdf]



Hazen RM, Papineau D, Bleeker W, Downs RT, Ferry J, McCoy T, Sverjensky D, Yang H (2008) Mineral evolution. American Mineralogist 93:1693-1720 [pdf]