Robert M. Hazen | Geophysical Laboratory

Astrobiology and Origins of Life


Estrada C, Sverjensky DA, Pelletier M, Razafitianamharavo A, and Hazen RM (2015) Interaction between L-aspartate and the brucite [Mg(OH)2]-water interfaceGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 155, 172-186[pdf]

Grosch EG and Hazen RM (2015) Microbes, mineral evolution, and the rise of micro-continents: Origin and co-evolution of life with early EarthAstrobiology, 15, 10, 922-939.

Nance JR, Armstrong JT, Cody GD, Fogel ML, and Hazen RM (2015) Preserved shell-binding protein and associated pigment in the Middle Miocene (8 to 18 Ma) gastropod EcphoraGeochemical Perspectives Letters,1, 1-8. 

Wenge J, Pacella MS, Athanasiadou D, Nelea V, Vali H, Hazen RM, Gray JJ, and McKee MD (2015) Chiral acidic amino acids induce chiral hierarchical structure in calcium carbonate. Nature, in revision.



Hazen RM (2014) Enantioselective adsorption on rock-forming minerals: A thought experimentSurface Science, 629, 11-14.

Lee N, Foustoukos DI, Sverjensky DA, Cody GD, and Hazen RM (2014) The effects of temperature, ph and redox state on the stability of glutamic acid in hydrothermal fluidsGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 135, 66-86.

Lee N, Sverjensky DA, and Hazen RM (2014) Cooperative and competitive adsorption of amino acids with Ca2+ on rutile (α-TiO2)Environmental Science and Technology, 48, 9358-9365.

Lee N, Foustoukos DI, Sverjensky DA, Cody GD, and Hazen RM (2014) Hydrogen enhances the stability of amino acids in hydrothermal environmentsChemical Geology, 386, 184-189.



Livi KJT, Schaffer B, Azzolini D, Seabourne CR, Hardcastle TP, Scott AJ, Hazen RM, Erlebacher JD, Brydson R, and Sverjensky DA (2013) Atomic scale roughness of rutile and implications for molecular surface adsorptionLangmuir, 29, 6876-6883.

Noffke N, Christian D, Wacey D, and Hazen RM (2013) Microbially induced sedimentary structures recording an ancient ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 billion-year-old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia. Astrobiology Journal, 13, #12, 1103-1124.



Hazen RM (2012) Geochemical origins of life. In A. H. Knoll, D. E. Canfield and K. O. Konhauser (Editors), Fundamentals of Geobiology. Oxford UK: Wiley-Blackwell, pp.315-332.

Hazen RM (2012) An accident waiting to happen (That’s Life). Eureka, The Times, #33 (June 2012), 14-19.

Cleaves II HJ, Scott AM, Hill FC, Leszczynski J, Sahai N, and Hazen RM (2012) Mineral-organic interfacial processes: potential roles in the origins of lifeChemical Society Reviews, 41, 5502-5525. 

Lee N, Hummer DR, Sverjensky DS, Rajh T, Hazen RM, Steele A, and Cody GD (2012) Speciation of L-DOPA on nanorutile as a function of pH and surface coverage using surface-enhance Raman spectroscopy (SERS)Langmuir, 28, 17322-17330. [pdf]



Bahri S, Jonsson CM, Jonsson CL, Azzolini D, Sverjensky DA, and Hazen RM (2011) Adsorption and surface complexation study of L-DOPA on rutile (TiO2) in NaCl solutions. Environmental Science and Technology, 45, 3959-3966.

Grew ES, Bada JL, and Hazen RM (2011) Borate minerals and the origin of the RNA worldOrigins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 41, 307-316.

Parikh SJ, Kubicki JD, Jonsson CM, Jonsson CL, Hazen RM, Sverjensky DA, and Sparks DL (2011) Evaluating glutamate and aspartate binding mechanisms to rutile (a-TiO2) via ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Langmuir, 27, 1778-1787.[pdf]

Cleaves II HJ, Crapster-Pregont E, Jonsson CM, Jonsson CL, Sverjensky DA, and Hazen RM (2011) The adsorption of short single-stranded DNA oligomers to mineral surfaces. Chemosphere 8, 1560–1567. [pdf] 

Livi KJT, Schaffer B, Azzolini D, Seabourne CR, Sader K, Shannon M, Sverjensky D, Hazen RM and Brydson R (2011) Imaging the surface of Rutile by STEM and its implication for organic molecule bonding. Proceedings of the Microscopy Conference 2011 (MC2011), August 28-September 02, Kiel/Germany, page M6_P621.



Cleaves II HJ, Jonsson CM, Jonsson CL, Sverjensky DA, and Hazen RM (2010) Adsorption of nucleic acid components on rutile (TiO2) surfacesAstrobiology 10, 311-323. [pdf]

Hazen RM and Sverjensky DA (2010) Chapter 10 - Mineral Surfaces, Geochemical Complexities and the Origins of Life, in D.W. Deamer & J.W. Szostak (Editors), Origins of Cellular Life, Cold Springs Harbor Perspectives in Biology. [pdf]

Jonsson CM, Jonsson CL, Sverjensky DA, Cleaves II HJ, and Hazen RM (2010) Adsorption of L-asparate to rutile (a-TiO2): Experimental and theoretical surface complexation studies. Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta 74, 2356–2367. [pdf]

Hazen RM (2010) How old is the Earth, and how do we know? Evolution: Education and Outreach 3, 198-205. [pdf]



Hazen RM (2009) The emergence of patterning in life’s origin and evolutionInternational Journal of Developmental Biology, 53, 683-692. [pdf]

Hazen RM (2009) Emergence and the experimental pursuit of the origin of life. In C. Bertka, editor, AAAS volume. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 21-46.

Hazen RM (2009) The chemical evolution of life: An Introduction. In L. Zaikowski and J. M. Friedrich [editors], Chemical Evolution II: From Origins of Life to Modern Society. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 1025, 3-13. [pdf]

Jonsson CM, Jonsson CL, Sverjensky DA, Cleaves HJ, and Hazen RM (2009) Attachment of L-Glutamate to Rutile (a-TiO2): A potentiometric, adsorption, and surface complexation studyLangmuir 25, 12127-12135. [pdf]



Ertem G, Snellinger-O'Brien AM, Ertem MC, Rogoff DA, Dworkin JP, Johnston MV and Hazen RM (2008) Abiotic formation of RNA-like oligomers by montmorillonite catalysis: part IIInternational Journal of Astrobiology 7, 1-7. [pdf]

Castro-Puyana M, Salgado A, Hazen RM, Crego AL and Marina ML (2008) Investiation of the enantioselective adsorption of 3-carboxy adipic acid on minerals by capillary electrophoresisElectrophoresis 29, 1548-1555. [pdf]

Brandes JA, Hazen RM and Yoder Jr HS (2008) Inorganic nitrogen reduction and stability under simulated hydrothermal conditionsAstrobiology 8, 1113-1126[pdf]

Sverjensky DA, Jonsson CM, Jonsson CL, Cleaves HJ and Hazen RM (2008) Glutamate surface speciation on amorphous titanium dioxide and hydrous ferric oxideEnvironmental Science & Technology 40, 6034-6039.

Noffke N, Beukes N, Bower D, Hazen RM and Swift DJP (2008) An actualistic perspective into Archean worlds - (cyano-)bacterially induced sedimentary structures in the siliciclastic Nhlazatse Section, 2.9 Ga Pongola Supergroup, South AfricaGeobiology 6, 5-20. [pdf]



Hazen RM, Griffin PL, Carothers JM and Szostak JW (2007) Functional information and the emergence of biocomplexityProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104, 8574-8581. [pdf]

Hazen RM (2007) The emergence of chemical complexity: An Introduction. In L. Zaikowski and J. M. Friedrich [editors], Chemical Evolution I: Chemical Change across Space and Time. American Chemical Society Symposium, pp.2-14. [pdf]

Ertem G, Hazen RM and Dworkin JP (2007) Sequence analysis of trimer isomers formed by montmorillonite catalysis in the reaction of binary monomer mixturesAstrobiology 7, 715-724. [pdf]

Bada J, Fegley Jr B, Miller SL, Lazcano A, Cleaves HJ, Hazen RM and Chalmers J (2007) Debating evidence for the origin of life on Earth. Science 315, 937-938. [pdf]

Hazen RM (2007) Emergence and the origin of life: Presentation, questions and responses. In C. Bertka, N. Roth and M. Shindell (Editors), Workshop Report: Philosophical, Ethical, and Theological Implications of Astrobiology. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science. pp. 30-40.

Boyce CK, Hotton CL, Fogel ML, Cody GD, Hazen RM and Knoll AH (2007) Devonian landscape heterogeneity recorded by a giant fungusGeology 35, 399-402. [pdf]



Hazen RM (2006) Mineral surfaces and the prebiotic selection and organization of biomolecules (Presidential Address to the Mineralogical Society of America). American Mineralogist 91, 1715-1729. [pdf]

Noffke N, Eriksson KA, Hazen RM and Simpson EL (2006) A new window into Early Archean life: Microbial mats in Earth's oldest siliciclastic tidal deposits (3.2 Ga Moodies Group, South Africa)Geology 34, 253-256. [pdf]

Noffke N, Beukes N, Hazen RM and Gutzmer J (2006) Spatial and temporal distribution of microbially induced sedimentary structures: A case study from siliciclastic storm deposits of the 2.9 Ga Witwatersrand Supergroup, South AfricaPrecambrian Research 146, 35-44. [pdf]

Hazen RM, Steele A, Maule J, Martin R and Vicenzi E (2006) Applications of microarray technology to the study of mineral-molecule interactions. Astrobiology 6, 223.

Hazen RM, Snellinger AM, Dworkin JP, Scott JH, Cody GD, Fogel ML, Johnston MV and Ertem G (2006) MALDI-MS analysis of hetero-trimer fractions formed by montmorillonite catalysis in the reaction of binary monomer mixtures. Astrobiology 6, 250-251.

Asthagiri A and Hazen RM (2006) An ab initio study of adsorption of alanine on the chiral calcite (2131) surfaceMolecular Simulation 33, 343-351. [pdf]

Hazen RM and Deamer D (2006) Hydrothermal reactions of pyruvic acid: synthesis, selection, and self-assembly of amphiphilic moleculesOrigins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere 37, 143-152. [pdf]



Hazen RM (2005) Genesis: The Scientific Quest for Life's Origin. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press, 339 p.

Hazen RM (2005) Genesis: Rocks, minerals and the geochemical origin of life. Elements 1, #3 (June, 2005), 135-137. [pdf]



Hazen RM (2004) Chiral crystal faces of common rock-forming minerals. In G. Palyi, C. Zucchi and L Cagglioti, Eds. Progress in Biological Chirality. New York: Elsevier, Chapter 11, pp.137-151. [pdf]

Churchill H, Teng H and Hazen RM (2004) Correlation of pH-dependent surface interaction forces to amino acid adsorption: Implications for the origin of lifeAmerican Mineralogist 89, 1048-1055. [pdf]

Cody GD, Boctor NZ, Brandes JA, Filley TR, Hazen RM and Yoder Jr HS (2004) Assaying the catalytic potential of transition metal sulfides for prebiotic carbon fixationGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68, 2185-2196. [pdf]

Downs RT and Hazen RM (2004) Chiral indices of crystalline surfaces as a measure of enantioselective potentialJournal of Molecular Catalysis 216, 273-285. [pdf]



Noffke N, Nhleko N and Hazen RM (2003) Earth's earliest microbial mats in a siliciclastic marine environment (2.9 Ga Mozaan Group, South Africa)Geology 31, 673-677. [pdf]

Hazen RM (2003) Factors that influence the emergence of complexity in prebiotic geochemical systems. Astrobiology 2, 599.

Hazen RM and Sholl DS (2003) Origins of biomolecular homochirality: selective molecular adsorption on crystalline surfaces. Astrobiology 2, 598-599. 

Hazen RM, Steele A, Cody GD, Fogel ML and Huntress Jr WT. (2003) Biosignatures and abiosignatures. Astrobiology 2, 512-513.

Boyce CK, Knoll AH, Cody GD, Fogel ML and Hazen RM (2003) Chemical evidence for cell wall lignification and the evolution of tracheids in Early Devonian plantsInternational Journal of Plant Science 164, 691-702. [pdf]

Hazen RM and Sholl DS (2003) Chiral selection on inorganic crystalline surfaces. Nature Materials 2, 367-374. [pdf]



Sharma A, Scott JH, Cody GD, Fogel ML, Hazen RM, Hemley RJ and Huntress WT (2002) Microbial activity at gigapascal pressuresScience 295, 1514-1516. [pdf]

Hazen RM, Boctor N, Brandes JA, Cody GD, Hemley RJ, Sharma A and Yoder Jr HS(2002) High pressure and the origin of life.  J. Phys. Condensed Matter 14, 1-6. [pdf]



Hazen RM (2001) Emergence and the origin of life. In: G. Pályi (Editor) Fundamentals of Life. New York: Elsevier, pp.41-50.

Cody GD, Hazen RM, Brandes JA, Morowitz HJ, and Yoder Jr HS. (2001) Geochemical roots of autotrophic carbon fixation: Hydrothermal experiments in the system citric acid, H2O-(±FeS)-(±NiS)Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 65, 3557-3576. [pdf]

Hazen RM (2001) Life's rocky start. Scientific American, 284, 4, 76-85. [pdf]

Hazen RM, Filley TR and Goodfriend GA (2001) Selective adsorption of L- and D-amino acids on calcite: implications for biochemical homochiralityProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (US), 98: 5487-5490. 

Boyce CK, Hazen RM and Knoll AH (2001) Nondestructive, in situ, cellular-scale mapping of elemental abundances including organic carbon in permineralized fossilsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (US), 98: 5970-5974. [pdf]

Hazen RM and Roedder E (2001) How old are bacteria from the Permian age? Nature, 411: 155. [pdf]



Cody GD, Boctor NZ, Filley TR, Hazen RM, Scott JH, Yoder Jr HS. (2000) Primordial carbonylated iron-sulfur compounds and the synthesis of pyruvateScience 289, 1337-1340. [pdf]

Brandes JA, Hazen RM, Yoder Jr HS, and Cody GD (2000) Early pre- and post-biotic synthesis of alanine: an alternative to the Strecker synthesis. In Perspectives in Amino Acid and Protein Geochemistry. (G.A. Goodfriend, M.J. Collins, M.L. Fogel, S.A. Macko, and J.F. Wehmiller, eds.). Oxford University Press, NY. pp. 41-59. [pdf]



Hazen RM (1999) A new perspective on the origin of life. In Sandra Hackman, Editor: The NOVA Reader: Science at the Turn of the Millennium. NY: TV Books, pp. 48-54.

Hazen RM (1999) Book review of Cradle of Life: The Discovery of Earth's Earliest Fossils by J. William Schopf. Physics Today 52, 10, 75-76.



Brandes JA, Boctor NZ, Cody GD, Cooper BA, Hazen RM, and Yoder Jr HS (1998) Abiotic nitrogen reduction in the early earth. Nature 395, 365-367. [pdf] Also, Chris Chyba's commentary on this article: [pdf]

Hazen, R.M. (1998) The stuff of life: What was life's first energy source? The Planetary Report 18, 16-17.