Robert M. Hazen | Geophysical Laboratory

Mineral Evolution and Mineral Ecology


Grew ES, Krivovichev SV, Hazen RM, Hystad G (2016) Evolution of structural complexity in boron minerals. Canadian Mineralogist, in press.



Hazen RM, Grew ES, Downs RT, Golden J, Hystad G (2015) Mineral ecology: Chance and necessity in the mineral diversity of terrestrial planetsCanadian Mineralogist, 53 (2), 295-324.

Hazen RM, Hystad G, Downs RT, Golden J, Pires A, Grew ES (2015) Earth’s “missing” mineralsAmerican Mineralogist 100, 2344-2347.  

Hazen RM (2015) Mineral evolution, the Great Oxidation Event, and the rise of colorful minerals. Mineralogical Record, in press.

Hystad G, Downs RT, Hazen RM (2015) Mineral Species Frequency Distribution Conforms to a Large Number of Rare Events Model: Prediction of Earth’s “Missing” MineralsMathematical Geosciences, 47, 647-661.

Hystad G, Downs RT, Grew ES, Hazen RM (2015) Statistical analysis of mineral diversity and distribution: Earth’s mineralogy is uniqueEarth and Planetary Science Letters, 426, 154-157.

Grew ES, Dymek RF, De Hoog JCM, Harley SL, Boak JM, Hazen RM, Yates MG (2015) Boron isotopes in tourmaline from the 3.7-3.8 Ga Isua Belt, Greenland: Sources for boron in Eoarchean continental crust and seawater. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 163, 156-177.



Grew ES, Hazen RM (2014) Beryllium mineral evolutionAmerican Mineralogist, 99, 999-1021.

Hazen RM (2014) Data-driven abductive discovery in mineralogyAmerican Mineralogist, 99, 2165-2170.

Hazen RM, Liu X-M, Downs RT, Golden J, Pires AJ, Grew ES, Hystad G, Estrada C, Sverjensky DA (2014) Mineral evolution: Episodic metallogenesis, the supercontinent cycle, and the co-evolving geosphere and biosphere. Economic Geology, Special Publication 18, 1-15.

Hazen RM (2014) Mineral fodder. Aeon Magazine, published online June 24, 2014, 7 pp.



Hazen, R.M. (2013) Paleomineralogy of the Hadean Eon: A preliminary listAmerican Journal of Science, 313, 807-843.

Hazen, R.M. (2013) The Story of Earth: The First 4.5 Billion Years, from Stardust to Living Planet. New York: Penguin, softcover edition, 306 p.

Hazen, R.M., A.Jones, L.Kah, D.A.Sverjensky (2013) Carbon mineral evolution. In Hazen, R.M., A. Jones, and J.Baross [Editors]. Carbon in Earth. Washington, DC: Mineralogical Society of America, pp. 79-107.

Golden, J., M. McMillan, R.T. Downs, G. Hystad, H.J. Stein, A. Zimmerman, D.A. Sverjensky, J. Armstrong, R.M. Hazen (2013) Rhenium variations in molybdenite (MoS2): Evidence for progressive subsurface oxidationEarth and Planetary Science Letters, 366, 1-5.

Hazen, R.M. (2013) Mineral evolution. In McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology 2013. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp.247-249.

Hazen, R.M., Sverjensky, D.A., Azzolini, D., Bish, D.L., Elmore, S., Hinnov, L., and Milliken, R.E. (2013) Clay mineral evolutionAmerican Mineralogist, 98, 2007-2029.

Grew, E.S., and Hazen, R.M. (2013) Evolution of the minerals of berylliumStein, 2013, 4-19. Also Norwegian language version (translated by Roy Kristiansen), “Evolusjon av Berylliummineraler, Stein 3, 2014, 4-20.



Hazen, R.M. (2012) The Story of Earth: The First 4.5 Billion Years, from Stardust to Living Planet. New York: Viking, 306 p. Softcover edition (2013). Foreign language: Spanish, Japanese, Korean, Russian, Polish, and Czech editions.

Hazen, R.M., J. Golden, R.T. Downs, G. Hysted, E.S. Grew, D. Azzolini, D.A. Sverjensky (2012) Mercury (Hg) mineral evolution: A mineralogical record of supercontinent assembly, changing ocean geochemistry, and the emerging terrestrial biosphere. American Mineralogist, 97, 1013-1042.

Hazen, R.M. and D. Papineau (2012) Mineralogcial co-evolution of the geosphere and biosphere. In A. H. Knoll, D. E. Canfield and K. O. Konhauser (Editors), Fundamentals of Geobiology. Oxford UK: Wiley-Blackwell, pp.333-350.



Grew, E.S., J.L. Bada and R.M. Hazen (2011) Borate minerals and the origin of the RNA world. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 41, 307-316. [pdf]

Hazen, R.M., A. Bekker, D.L. Bish, W. Bleeker, R.T. Downs, J. Farquhar, J.M. Ferry, E.S. Grew, A.H. Knoll, D. Papineau, J.P. Ralph, D.A. Sverjensky, and J.W. Valley (2011) Needs and opportunities in mineral evolution research. American Mineralogist 96, 953-963. [pdf]

Hazen, R.M. and D. Papineau (2011) Mineral evolution of terrestrial planets. Invited chapter in A.H. Knowll, D.E. Canfield and K.O. Konhauser (Editors), A Geobiology Reader. 

Hazen, R.M. (2011) What's new in mineral evolution. Italy Symposium publication.



Hazen, R.M. (2010) The evolution of minerals. Scientific American 3, 58-65. 

Hazen, R.M. and J.M. Ferry (2010) Mineral evolution:  Mineralogy in the fourth dimension. Elements 6, 9-12. [pdf]

Hazen, R.M. and E. Eldredge (2010) Themes and variations in complex systemsElements 6, 43-46. [pdf]



Hazen, R.M. (2009) Les mineraux evoluent aussi. La Recherche 430, 60-63.   

Hazen, R.M. (2009) The descent of minerals [in Korean]. Science Donga 282, 54-59.  

Hazen, R.M., R. Ewing, and D. Sverjensky (2009) The evolution of uranium and thorium minerals.American Mineralogist 94, 1293-1311. [pdf]



Hazen, R.M., D. Papineau, W. Bleeker, R.T. Downs, J. Ferry, T. McCoy, D. Sverjensky, and H. Yang (2008) Mineral evolutionAmerican Mineralogist  93, 1693-1720. [pdf]