Robert M. Hazen | Geophysical Laboratory

Career

In more than four decades of original mineralogical research, Robert M. Hazen has explored the boundaries of the mineralogical sciences from mineral physics to biomineralization to mineral evolution. His mineralogical research, incorporated into approximately 300 publications, spans the areas of high-pressure and temperature crystallography, equations of state and mineral physics, mineral surface chemistry, the roles of minerals in prebiotic chemistry, and the mineralogical co-evolution of the geosphere and biosphere. The following paragraphs outline Hazen’s contributions to these diverse areas of mineralogy.

COMPARATIVE CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY: Hazen’s earliest mineralogical publications, including his highly cited first paper based on his MIT masters thesis, “The effect of cation substitution on the physical properties of trioctahedral micas” [1] under the supervision of David R. Wones, and subsequent studies of mica crystallography and crystal chemistry [3, 21, 37-38, C8], touch on aspects of silicate crystal chemistry. In an effort to extend this research to plausible deep crustal and upper mantle conditions, he learned techniques of high- and low-temperature crystallography [2,5], and pioneered applications of the diamond anvil cell to high-pressure and high-P-T crystallography [10]. His first high-pressure studies demonstrated the structural basis of an abrupt red-to-blue color change in the rare mineral gillespite at ~2 GPa—a reversible tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition involving distortion of a square-planar iron site [4]. In his 1975 PhD thesis at Harvard University under the supervision of Charles W. Burnham he applied these techniques to periclase and Mg-Fe olivine [6-8, 12]. These studies were the first to integrate the diamond anvil cell with 4-circle x-ray diffractometry, and they set the stage for Hazen’s subsequent two decades of crystallographic research. 

    

Gillespite in a diamond anvil cell       Diamond cell mount           High-temperature mount

  

Charlie and Mary Sue Burnham                         Robert Hazen, c.1978

In 1975-1976, during a year’s NATO Postdoctoral Fellowship at Cambridge University working with Charles T. Prewitt, he developed empirical relationships for the thermal expansion and compressibility of structural elements in oxides and silicates [9,13-15]—an extension of Prewitt’s ionic radii contributions. These efforts were originally conceived as an extension of the influential Shannon and Prewitt ionic radii tables; however, Hazen and Prewitt quickly realized that less ambiguous measures of structural changes are provided by considering thermal expansion and compressibility coefficients of individual cation-anion bonds. While at Cambridge, Hazen also wrote the influential paper “Temperature, pressure, and composition: structurally analogous variables” [11], published in the first issue of Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, which Prewitt co-founded. This paper posited that, to first approximation, the structural changes associated with increased temperature, decreased pressure, or the substitution of larger cations in the largest polyhedral site cause similar structural changes. The baseline provided by these theoretical ideas, especially in the context of the many structures in which deviations from this approximation dominate compression behavior, were to influence his research over the next 20 years.

   

Charlie Prewitt

 In 1976 Hazen came to the Carnegie Institution of Washington’s Geophysical Laboratory to work with Peter Bell and David Mao on lunar minerals [17, 24-25, C2, C4, C12, C13]. He applied x-ray crystallography and polarized optical absorption spectroscopy to characterize crystals and glasses in lunar soils. A significant finding was that lunar olivine commonly incorporates divalent chromium—a species rarely encountered in terrestrial samples and one that underscores the extremely reduced character of the Moon’s near-surface environment. 


  

Peter Bell and David Mao, c.1976                               Larry Finger, c.1978

At the same time he began crystallographic studies at the Geophysical Laboratory, where he collaborated closely with Larry W. Finger for two decades [16 et seq.; C1 et seq.]. Together they published high-pressure crystal structures of approximately 100 varied materials, including layer structure oxides and silicates [17-18, C6]; garnets [20, 92]; corundum and related oxides [23, 32, 63, C5]; zircon [27]; oxide and silicate spinels [28, 67, 119, C1]; nitrates and nitrites [29]; rutile-type oxides [34]; methane, argon, and other condensed gases [33, 39, 43, 74, 101, C17, C23]; elemental Pr [42, C19]; gillespite [48]; aluminosilicates [58, 134, 135]; niobates, tungstates, and molybdates [61, 62]; beryllium oxide and silicates [64, 66, 68, 71, 34]; ilvaite [69, C32]; olivine-type phases [72, 73, 129, C18]; phosphates [70, 120]; organic molecular solids [75, 116, 126]; flourides [C9], feldspars [82, 125, 142]; feldspathoids [86]; pyroxenes and pyroxenoids [87, 95, 118, 141, C3, C11, C25, C28, C29]; quartz [90]; Mg-Fe wadsleyite [100, 108, 117; 146, 147, C39]; sulfides [110]; akermanite [132]; and amphiboles [137].

Hazen and Finger also measured high-temperature crystal structures [68, 72], solved new crystal structures [37, 94, 103, 144, C24, C27, C35], described varied reversible phase transitions [65, 69, 120, 132, 137, 141, C30, C31, C32], and contributed theoretical treatments of “comparative crystal chemistry,” which resulted in the 1982 publication of a Wiley monograph of that title [44], as well as many review papers [30, 35, 41, 46, 50, 52, 54, 59, 60, 78, 83, 111, 124, 139, C7, C14]. In 1977 Hazen co-organized the first international mineral physics conference at Airlie House, Virginia with Charles Prewitt, and he continued in leadership roles in the mineral physics community for the next two decades.

Airlie House Photo

The period 1976-1996 saw the development of empirical descriptions of systematic trends in thermal expansion and compression of structural elements (notably the “bulk modulus-volume relationship” for cation polyhedra) [30, 31, C10]. Among the surprising findings in those “early days” of high-pressure crystallographic research were: the 1979 recognition of “compressibility collapse” transitions from high-symmetry non-tilted polyhedral networks to low-symmetry tilted arrays with much enhanced compressibility [26, 56, 57]; the 1982 discovery of high-pressure expansion of the a-axis of bismuth vanadate as a consequence of a cross-linked polyhedral network [45, 65]; the 1983 finding of anomalous compressibility of zeolites in molecular media of different sizes (small molecules enter the structures and lead to high bulk moduli, whereas large molecules don’t enter zeolite channels and thus can “crumple” the structure) [47, 55, C37]; the 1984 measurement of the effect of non-stoichiometry on wüstite (Fe1-xO) bulk modulus [49, 53, 113, C21, C22]; and the 1987 determination of the crystal structure and compressibility of H2 using a conventional x-ray source [74].

During this period Hazen also developed improved crystallographic techniques, including modified diamond anvil cells for P-T studies [36, C15, C16, C20], x-ray techniques for viscosity measurements [51, C33, C34], and calibration techniques for high-temperature studies at pressure [40]. His 1993 Science paper, “Comparative compressibility of silicate spinels,” introduced the multiple crystal technique and was featured on the cover of that periodical [112]. That procedure is now widely employed both for studies of comparative compressibility and for accurate internal pressure calibration. 

  

High-P-T crystallography                                            Multiple crystal mount

 In 1987-1990 Hazen led the Geophysical Laboratory research team that determined crystal structures of the famous Y-Ba-Cu oxide superconductor invented by Paul Chu and colleagues at the University of Houston [76, 77] and, subsequently, a dozen other new high-temperature oxide superconductors [80, 81, 84, 85, 88, 91, 97, 107, 121], all of which were related to the perovskite structure [79, 98]. These widely cited studies led to research on organic superconductors [116, 126], as well, and hence to research on the compressibilities, structures, and phase transitions in a variety of molecular crystals.

  

High-temperature superconductor                                    Paul Chu, University of Houston

Carnegie’s superconductor team: Charlie Prewitt, Ross Angel, Nancy Ross, Larry Finger

A recurring theme of Hazen’s crystal chemical studies was the investigation of high-pressure phases with 6-coordinated silicon [106, C38]. A 1978 Science report with Larry Finger posited that Earth’s transition zone represents the gradual transformation from IV to VI coordination in silicates [22]. Their subsequent investigations included room-pressure and high-pressure structural studies of many presumed mantle silicates, including MgSiO3 perovskite and majorite [96, 99, 104, 122, 123], hydrous magnesium silicates [89, 105, 109, 114, 133], stishovite [102], hollandite-type phases [115, 128], and fascinating framework phases with mixed 4- and 6-coordination [127, 144]. This research led to the recognition of a large class of 4-6 framework structures, as reported in Science in 1996 [130].

A new family of IV-VI framework silicates. From Hazen et al. (1996) [130]

In the final years of Hazen’s crystal chemical research, he employed the multiple crystal technique to investigate effects of cation order-disorder on equations of state of orthopyroxene [118], spinels [119, 145], pseudobrookite [136, 138], and other binary oxide minerals [140, 143]. Many of these studies were conducted in collaboration with Hexiong Yang. These studies led to the recognition of “structural” versus “equilibrium” equations of state—i.e., significantly different P-V-T relationships for compounds in which order is constant upon heating versus crystals which become disordered during experimental heating [131, 148].

 

Different states of order-disorder affect spinel compression.

 

Hazen’s capstone effort in crystal chemistry was the 2000 publication of High-Temperature and High-Pressure Crystal Chemistry, edited and co-authored by Hazen and Robert T. Downs, which appeared as volume 41 of the Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry series [149-153]. This volume summarized both the technological developments and crystal chemical insights of 30 years of research. 

  

Bob Downs                         Hexiong Yang


SCIENCE EDUCATION: In 1996, after a quarter century of crystallographic research, Hazen shifted his focus to the varied roles of minerals in Earth’s evolving biosphere. Surprisingly, this transition arose from his influential work in undergraduate science education—efforts that emphasized broadly interdisciplinary approaches to teaching and learning science [154-160].

    

PREBIOTIC CHEMISTRY AND THE ORIGINS OF LIFE: Hazen applied this philosophy to mineralogy and began to see important connections between mineralogy and life’s origins and evolution. His earliest studies in the mineralogical co-evolution of the geosphere and biosphere were conducted in collaboration with Geophysical Laboratory colleagues George Cody (an organic geochemist) and Hatten S. Yoder Jr. (a renowned experimental petrologist), and focused on mineral catalyzed prebiotic organic reactions. Their initial studies, published in Science, Nature, and elsewhere, demonstrated the facile mineral-mediated production of ammonia from di-nitrogen gas [161, 202], the formation of key biomolecules from CO2 and water [162-164, 166, 167, 182, 196]; and amino acids [165, 243] at hydrothermal conditions in the presence of transition metal oxide and sulfide minerals. An important finding was that different transition elements mediate different kinds of organic reactions. This research pointed to the likelihood that minerals played a variety of roles in the origins of life [168, 173, 197].

    

Hat Yoder                                   George Cody

Different transition metal sulfides catalyze different organic reactions [167].

  

Molecules synthesized at high P-T conditions self-organize into vesicles [196].

CHIRAL SELECTION: In parallel to studies of biosynthesis, Hazen began to investigate the nature of mineral surfaces and their interactions with small organic molecules, with a special emphasis on the origins of biochemical homochirality. In a 2001 study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Hazen demonstrated experimentally for the first time chiral selection of organic molecules on chiral mineral surfaces (specifically, D- and L-aspartic acid on calcite 214-type faces) [169, 174, 190], followed by study of other chiral systems [201]. This paper, one his most widely cited works, has had significant influence on the field of chirality, which is dominated by the technological challenges associated with the manufacture of chirally pure pharmaceuticals. He also presented papers on the widespread natural occurrence of chiral mineral surfaces, notably high-indices faces on achiral minerals [177, 180, 181, 183].

  

D- and L-aspartic acid selective adsorb on calcite [169]; DFT modeling reveals 3 points of attachment [190].

Chiral (214)-type surface of calcite [183] 

 

Left- and right-handed quartz crystals. The “s” face indicates this crystal is right-handed.

MINERAL SURFACES: Subsequent studies in collaboration with Dimitri Sverjensky and colleagues at Johns Hopkins University and the University of Delaware have employed classic potentiometric titration and batch adsorption methods coupled with IR spectroscopy, x-ray, and neutron techniques to document molecular-scale details of such interactions [193, 199, 200, 210, 215-219, 222-224, 230, 232, 245]. This work has revealed that molecular adsorption is highly dependent on pH and ionic strength of the solution, as well as solute concentration. In the case of glutamate adsorption on rutile, for example, a transition from a “lying down” to “standing up” configuration is seen at high solute concentrations—a phenomenon driven by surface crowding. Hazen’s 2006 MSA Presidential Address reviewed the context and first results from some of these developments in mineral surface science [187].

  

Adsorption of glutamate on rutile                              Dimitri Sverjensky 

PALEONTOLOGY: These investigations in biogeology also led to a series of papers on microanalytical paleontology—the use of traditional mineralogical techniques in the study of organic molecular and isotopic signatures preserved in ancient sediments [178]. Hazen’s first investigations focused on Phanerozoic plants with Charles Kevin Boyce [170, 179, 195]. Based on isotopic studies, they showed that the enigmatic Devonian tree-like fossil Prototaxites is in fact a giant fungus. This work was followed by a sequence of publications with Nora Noffke on ancient microbial mats [175, 188, 189, 203], which documented some of Earth’s oldest fossils and pointed to the rise of photosynthesis (though probably not oxgenic) by 3.5 billion years ago. Hazen has also contributed to studies led by Anurag Sharma on microbial populations at extreme conditions [171-173].

   

Cell structures in Devonian plants [170]                  3.2 billion year old microbial mats [203]

  

Anurag Sharma                         Microbes at 1.4 GPa [172]

COMPLEX EVOLVING SYSTEMS: These mineralogical studies also led to publications on the roles of mineral surfaces in life’s origins [168, 187, 216, 231, 244, 246], as well as more general consideration of the origins of life and the emergence of complex systems [184, 191, 192, 194, 207, 208, 211, 213, 229], including the book Genesis: The Scientific Quest for Life’s Origins (published by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences) [185] and an edited issue of Elements of origins of life [186]. These studies, including the development of the concept of “functional information” with Nobel Prize winner Jack Szostak at Harvard University [191], point to general principles of evolutionary systems, all of which feature (1) interacting “agents” that can adopt combinatorially large numbers of configurations, with (2) a selection mechanism that favors functional configurations.

   

                                          Jack Szostak, Harvard University

MINERAL EVOLUTION: In 2007 Robert Hazen began to study the changing diversity and distribution of minerals in near-surface environments of Earth and other terrestrial planets and moons through deep time—a field that he called “mineral evolution.” In the initial 2008 publication in American Mineralogist on this idea [198], Hazen and coworkers divided Earth’s mineralogical history into ten stages, each of which saw significant changes in near-surface mineralogy. Principal findings include the realization that different planets and moons achieve different stages of mineral evolution. Furthermore, Hazen and colleagues proposed that 2/3rds of known mineral species on Earth probably could not have appeared prior to the origin and evolution of life [212, 214, 221, 227, 242]. A report in Science called this original and widely discussed framing of mineral research “the first paradigm shift in mineralogy in 200 years.”

  

  

Mineral evolution describes Earth’s changing near-surface environment through 4.567 billion years of planetary history.

Mineral evolution has attracted considerable media attention, including this cartoon by Ron Collier that appeared in New Scientist.

 A dozen publications, including studies of the minerals of uranium [209]; Be and B [204-206, 220, 247]; Hg, Br, and I [226]; Mo [239]; and carbon [237]; as well as clay minerals [240]; have followed the original 2008 article, and many more manuscripts are in progress. Hazen’s 2013 article on “Paleomineralogy of the Hadean Eon” [241] ties mineral evolution to considerations of life’s origins, while his 2012 book, The Story of Earth, expands on all of these themes with a narrative of Earth’s co-evolving geosphere and biosphere [225].

  

Distribution of Hg minerals through time.

DEEP CARBON OBSERVATORY: Hazen’s studies in geobiology also led to his being named Principal Investigator and Executive Director of the Deep Carbon Observatory, a 10-year program initially funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation to study carbon’s chemical, physical, and biological roles in Earth. This growing effort currently has 1000 collaborators in 40 countries, with a projected budget exceeding $500 million. He edited Carbon in Earth, volume 75 of the Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry series [233], and he contributed to five chapters in that volume [234-238]. These chapters cover aspects of carbon mineralogy, crystal chemistry, mineral physics, mineral evolution, mineral-mediated organic synthesis, and the co-evolution of the geosphere and biosphere, and thus represent a synthesis of Hazen’s four decades of mineralogical research. 

   

 

Robert M. Hazen—Selected Mineralogical References

* Hundreds of published abstracts, and more than 100 publications on science education, history of science, and music are not included in this list.

PART I: Selected publications in crystal chemistry and high P-T crystallography (1972-2000)

1.   Hazen, R.M. and D.R.Wones (1972) The effect of cation substitution on the physical properties of trioctahedral micas.  American Mineralogist 57, 103-129. 

2.   Smyth, J.R. and R.M.Hazen (1973) The crystal structures of forsterite and hortonolite at several temperatures up to 900oC.  American Mineralogist 58, 588-593. [pdf]

3.   Hazen, R.M. and C.W.Burnham (1973) The crystal structures of one-layer phlogopite and annite.  American Mineralogist 58, 889-900. [pdf]

4.   Hazen, R.M. and C.W.Burnham (1974) The crystal structures of gillespite I and II:  a structure determination at high pressure.  American Mineralogist 59, 1166-1176. [pdf]

5.   Grove, T.L. and R.M.Hazen (1974) Alkali feldspar unit-cell parameters at liquid-nitrogen temperature:  low-temperature limits of the displacive transformation. American Mineralogist 59, 1327-1329. [pdf]

6.   Hazen, R.M. (1976) Effects of temperature and pressure on the cell dimensions and isotropic temperature factors of periclase.  American Mineralogist 61, 266-271. [pdf]

7.   Hazen, R.M. (1976) Effects of temperature and pressure on the crystal structure of forsterite.  American Mineralogist 61, 1280-1293. [pdf]

8.   Hazen, R.M. (1976) Effects of temperature and pressure on the crystal structures of silicate minerals.  Mineralogical Society of London Bulletin 20, 8. 

9.   Hazen, R.M. (1976) Sanidine: predicted and observed monoclinic-to-triclinic reversible phase transition at high pressure.  Science 194, 105-107. [pdf]

10.   Bassett, W.A., R.M.Hazen and L. Merrill (1976) New applications of the miniature diamond pressure cell:  III.  High-pressure single crystal x-ray diffraction.  In R.G.Strens (ed.) The Physics and Chemistry of Minerals and Rocks.  New York: Wiley, 459-468.

11.   Hazen, R.M. (1977) Temperature, pressure, and composition: structurally analogous variables.  Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 1, 83-94. [pdf]

12.   Hazen, R.M. (1977) Effects of temperature and pressure on the crystal structure of ferro-magnesian olivines.  American Mineralogist 63, 286-295. [pdf] 

13.   Hazen, R.M. and C.T.Prewitt (1977) Linear compressibilities of low albite: High-pressure structural implications.  American Mineralogist 62, 309-315. [pdf]

14.   Hazen, R.M. (1977) Mechanisms of transformation and twinning in gillespite at high pressure.  American Mineralogist 63, 528-533. [pdf]

15.   Hazen, R.M. and C.T.Prewitt (1977) Effects of temperature and pressure on interatomic distances in oxygen-based minerals. American Mineralogist 62, 554-558. [pdf]

16.   Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1977) Crystal structure and compositional variation of Angra dos Reis fassaite.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters 35, 357-362. [pdf]

17.   Hazen, R.M., H.K.Mao and P.M.Bell (1977) Effects of compositional variation on absorption spectra of lunar olivines. Proceedings of the Lunar Science Conference 8, 1081-1090. [pdf]

18.   Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1978) Crystal structures and compressibilities of layer minerals at high pressure.  I.  BN and SnS2American Mineralogist 63, 289-292. [pdf]

19.   Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1978) Crystal structures and compressibilities of layer minerals at high pressure.  II.  phlogopite and chlorite.  American Mineralogist 63, 293-296. [pdf]

20.   Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1978) Crystal structures and compressibilities of pyrope and grossularite to 60 kilobars.  American Mineralogist 63, 297-303. [pdf]

21.   Hazen, R.M. and D.R.Wones (1978) Predicted and observed compositional limits of trioctahedral micas.  American Mineralogist 63, 885-892. [pdf]

22.   Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1978) Crystal chemistry of silicon-oxygen bonds at high pressure:  implications for the earth's mantle mineralogy.  Science 201, 1122-1123. [pdf]

23.   Finger, L.W. and R.M.Hazen (1978) Crystal structure and compressibility of ruby to 46 kbar.  Journal of Applied Physics 49, 5823-5826. [pdf]

24.   Hazen, R.M., H.K.Mao and P.M.Bell (1978) Effects of compositional variation on absorption spectra of lunar pyroxene.  Proceedings of the Lunar Science Conference 9, 2919-2934. [pdf]

25.   Bell, P.M., H.K.Mao and R.M.Hazen (1978) The Luna 24 sample from Mare Crisium: New structural features in lunar glasses deduced from a study of crystal-field spectra.  Proceedings of the Conference on Luna 24, 265-280. [pdf]

26.   Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1979) Polyhedral tilting: a common type of phase transition and its relationship to analcite at high pressure.  Phase Transitions 1, 1-22. [pdf]

27.   Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1979) Crystal structure and compressibility of zircon at high pressure.  American Mineralogist 64, 196-201. [pdf]

28.   Finger, L.W., R.M.Hazen and T.Yagi (1979) Crystal structures and electron density studies of nickel and iron silicate spinels at elevated temperature or pressure.  American Mineralogist 64, 1002-1009. [pdf]

29.   Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1979) Linear compressibilities of NaNO2 and NaNO3Journal of Applied Physics 50, 6826-6828. [pdf]

30.   Finger, L.W. and R.M.Hazen (1979) Response of oxygen-based structures to changes in temperature, pressure and composition. Transactions of the American Crystallographic Association 15, 93-105. [pdf]

31.   Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1979) Bulk modulus-volume relationship for cation-anion polyhedra.  Journal of Geophysical Research 84, 6723-6728. [pdf]

32.   Finger, L.W. and R.M.Hazen (1980) Crystal structures and isothermal compression of Fe2O3, Cr2O3 and V2O3 to 50 kbar.  Journal of Applied Physics 51, 5362-5367. [pdf]

33.   Hazen, R.M., H.K.Mao, L.W.Finger and P.M.Bell (1980) Structure and compression of crystalline methane at high pressure and room temperature.  Applied Physics Letters 37, 288-289. [pdf]

34.   Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1981) Bulk moduli and high-pressure crystal structures of rutile-type compounds.  Journal of the Physics and Chemistry of Solids 42, 143-151. [pdf]

35.    Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1981) Module structure variation with temperature, pressure and composition: a key to the stability of modular structures?  In: A.Navrotsky and M.O'Keefe (eds.) Structure and Bonding in Crystals.  NY:  Academic Press, volume 2, 109-116.

36.   Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1981) High-temperature diamond anvil pressure cell for single-crystal studies.  Review of Scientific Instruments 52, 75-79. [pdf]

37.   Spear, F., R.M.Hazen and D.Rumble (1981) Wonesite:  a new rock-forming silicate from the Post Pond Volcanics, Vermont.  American Mineralogist 66, 100-105. [pdf]

38.   Hazen, R.M., L.W.Finger and D.Velde (1981) Crystal structure of silica-rich trioctahedral mica.  American Mineralogist 66, 586-591. [pdf]

39.   Finger, L.W., R.M.Hazen, G.Zou, H.K.Mao and P.M.Bell (1981) Structure and compression of crystalline argon and neon at high pressure and room temperature.  Applied Physics Letters 39, 892-894. [pdf]

40.   Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1981) Calcium fluoride as an internal pressure standard in high-pressure/high-temperature crystallography.  Journal of Applied Crystallography 14, 234-236. [pdf]

41.   Finger, L.W. and R.M.Hazen (1981) X-ray crystallographic studies at high pressure and high temperature.  In: High Pressure as a Reagent and an Environment.  Washington:  American Chemical Society, 77-81. [pdf]

42.   Mao, H.K., R.M.Hazen, P.M.Bell and J.Wittig (1981) Evidence for a localized 4f-shell breakdown in praseodymium under pressure.  Journal of Applied Physics 52, 4572-4574. [pdf]

43.   Zou, G., H.K.Mao, L.W.Finger, P.M.Bell and R.M.Hazen (1981) Interatomic potentials for solid argon and neon at high pressures.  In: J.S.Schilling and R.N.Skelton (eds.)  Physics of Solids under High Pressure.  Amsterdam:  North-Holland Publishing Co., 137-140. 

44.   Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1982) Comparative Crystal Chemistry:  Temperature, Pressure, Composition and the Variation of Crystal Structure.  London:  J. Wiley & Sons, xv, 231 p.

45.   Hazen, R.M. and J.W.Mariathasan (1982) Bismuth vanadate:  a high-pressure, high-temperature crystallographic study of the ferroelastic-paraelastic transition.  Science 216, 991-993. [pdf]

46.   Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1982) High-temperature and high-pressure crystal chemistry.  In:  W.Schreyer (ed.) High-Pressure Researches in Geosciences.  Stuttgart:  Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuch Handlung, 151-176. [pdf]

47.   Hazen, R.M. (1983) Zeolite molecular sieve 4A:  anomalous compressibility and volume discontinuities at high pressure.  Science 219, 1065-1067. [pdf]

48.   Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1983) High-pressure and high-temperature crystallographic study of the gillespite I-II phase transition.  American Mineralogist 68, 595-603. [pdf]

49.   Jeanloz, R.L. and R.M.Hazen (1983) Compression, nonstoichiometry and bulk viscosity of wüstite.  Nature 304, 620-622. [pdf]

50.   Hazen, R.M. (1983) Acceptance of the Mineralogical Society of America Award for 1982.  American Mineralogist 68, 655-656.

51.   Hazen, R.M. and M.R.Sharpe (1983) Radiographic determination of the positions of platinum spheres in density-viscosity studies of silicate melts.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 82, 428-430. [pdf]

52.   Hazen, R.M. and L.W. Finger (1984) Comparative crystal chemistry. American Scientist 72, 143-150.

53.   Hazen, R.M. and R.L. Jeanloz (1984) Wüstite (Fe1-xO): a review of its defect structure and physical properties.  Review of Geophysics and Space Physics 22, 37-46.

54.   Hazen, R.M. (1984) Mineralogy: A historical review. Journal of Geological Education 32, 288-298.

55.   Hazen, R.M. and L.W. Finger (1984) Anomalous compressibility of zeolite 4A in several hydrostatic pressure media. Journal of Applied Physics 56, 1838-1840. [pdf]

56.   Hazen, R.M. and L.W. Finger (1984) Compressibilities and high-pressure phase transitions of sodium tungstate perovskites (NaxWO3). Journal of Applied Physics 56,  311-313. [pdf]

57.    Mendes Filho, J., V. Lemnos, F. Cerdeira, R.S. Katiyar, R.M. Hazen and L.W. Finger (1984) Raman and x-ray studies of a high-pressure phase transition in b-LiIO3 and the study of anharmonic effects.  Physical Review B30, 7212-7218. [pdf]

58.   Ralph, R.L., L.W. Finger, R.M. Hazen and S. Ghose (1984) Compressibility and crystal structure of andalusite at high pressure. American Mineralogist 59, 513-519. [pdf]

59.   Hazen, R.M. and L.W. Finger (1985) Crystal compression. Scientific American 252, 110-117. [pdf]

60.   Hazen, R.M. (1985) Comparative crystal chemistry and the polyhedral approach.  Reviews in Mineralogy 14, 317-346.

61.   Mariathasan, J.W.E., L W. Finger and R.M. Hazen (1985) High-pressure behavior of LaNbO4Acta Crystallographica B41, 179-184. [pdf]

62.   Hazen, R.M., L.W. Finger and J.W.E. Mariathasan (1985) High-pressure crystal chemistry of scheelite-type tungstates and molybdates. International Journal of the Physics and Chemistry of Solids 46, 253-263. [pdf]

63.   Au, A. Y. and R. M. Hazen (1985) Polyhedral modeling of the elastic properties of corundum (a-Al2O3) and chrysoberyl (Al2BeO4). Geophysical Research Letters 12, 725-728. [pdf]

64.   Hazen, R. M. and A. Y. Au (1986) High-pressure crystal chemistry of phenakite (Be2SiO4) and bertrandite (Be4Si2O7(OH)2). Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 13, 69-78. [pdf]

65.   Mariathasan, J. W. E., R. M. Hazen and L. W. Finger (1986) Crystal structure of the high-pressure form of BiVO4Phase Transitions 6, 165-174. [pdf]

66.   Hazen, R. M., A. Y. Au, and L. W. Finger (1986) High-pressure crystal chemistry of beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18) and euclase (BeAlSiO4OH). American Mineralogist 71, 977-984. [pdf]

67.   Finger, L. W., R. M. Hazen, and A. M. Hofmeister (1986) High-pressure crystal chemistry of spinel (MgAl2O4) and magnetite (Fe3O4): Comparisons with silicate spinels.  Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 13, 215-220. [pdf]

68.   Hazen, R. M. and L. W. Finger (1986) High-pressure and high-temperature crystal chemistry of beryllium oxide.  Journal of Applied Physics 59, 3728-3733. [pdf]

69.   Finger, L. W. and R. M. Hazen (1987) The crystal structure of monoclinic ilvaite and the nature of the monoclinic--orthorhombic transition at high pressure. Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 179, 415-430. [pdf]

70.   Hazen, R. M., L. W. Finger, D. K. Agrawal, H. A. McKinstry and A. J. Perrotta (1987) High-temperature crystal chemistry of sodium zirconium phosphate. Materials Research Bulletin 2, 329-337. [pdf]

71.   Hazen, R.M. (1987) High-pressure crystal chemistry of chyrsoberyl, Al2BeO4: Insights on the origin of olivine elastic anisotropy. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 14, 13-20. [pdf]

72.   Hazen, R.M. and L. W. Finger (1987) High-temperature crystal chemistry of phenakite (Be2SiO4) and chrysoberyl (BeAl2O4). Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 14, 426-434. [pdf]

73.   Sharp, Z. D., R. M. Hazen and L. W. Finger (1987) High-pressure crystal chemistry of monticellite, CaMgSiO4. American Mineralogist 72, 748-755. [pdf]

74.   Hazen, R. M., H. K. Mao and L. W. Finger (1987) Single-crystal x-ray diffraction of solid n-H2 at 5.40 GPa and 300 K. Physical Review B36, 3944-3947. 

75.   Hazen, R. M., T. C. Hoering and A. M. Hofmeister (1987) Compressibility and high-pressure phase transition of a metalloporphyrin: 5,10,15,20 Tetraphenyl 21H,23H Porphine Cobalt (II). Journal of Physical Chemistry 91, 5042-5045. [pdf]

76.   Hazen, R. M., L. W. Finger, R. J. Angel, C. T. Prewitt, N. L. Ross, H. K. Mao, C. G. Hadidiacos, P. H. Hor, R. L. Meng and C. W. Chu (1987) Crystallographic description of phases in the Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor. Physical Review B35, 7238-7241. [pdf]

77.   Ross, N. L., R. J. Angel, L. W. Finger, R. M. Hazen and C. T. Prewitt (1987) Oxygen-defect perovskites and the 93-K superconductor. In D. L. Nelson, M. S. Whittingham and T.F.George (editors), Chemistry of High-Temperature Superconductors, American Chemical Society Symposium Series 351, 164-172. [pdf]

78.   Hazen, R. M. (1988) A useful fiction: Polyhedral modeling of mineral properties.  American Journal of Science 288A, (Wones Volume), 242-269. [pdf]

79.   Hazen, R.M. (1988)  Perovskites. Scientific American 258, #6 for June, 74-81.

80.   Veblen, D. R., P. J. Heaney, R. J. Angel, L. W. Finger, R. M. Hazen, C. T. Prewitt, N. L. Ross, C. W. Chu, P. H. Hor, and R. L. Meng (1988) Crystallography, chemistry, and structural disorder in the new high-Tc Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O superconductor.  Nature 332, 334-337. [pdf]

81.   Hazen, R. M., C. T. Prewitt, R. J. Angel, N. L. Ross, L. W. Finger, C. G. Hadidiacos, D. R. Veblen, P. J. Heaney, P. H. Hor, R. L. Meng, Y. Y. Sun, Y. Q. Wang, Y. Y. Xue, Z. J. Huang, L. Gao, J. Bechtold, and C. W. Chu (1988) Superconductivity in the high-Tc Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O system: Phase identification.  Physical Review Letters 60, 1174-1177. [pdf]

82.   Angel, R. J., R. M. Hazen, T. C. McCormick, C. T. Prewitt and J. R. Smyth (1988) Comparative compressibility of end-member feldspars. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 15, 313-318. [pdf]

83.   Mao, H. K., A. P. Jephcoat, R. J. Hemley, L. W. Finger, C. S. Zha, R. M. Hazen, and D. E. Cox (1988)  Synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements of single-crystal hydrogen to 26.5 Gigapascals.  Science 239, 1131-1134. [pdf]

84.   Hazen, R. M., L. W. Finger, R. J. Angel, C. T. Prewitt, N. L. Ross, C. G. Hadidiacos, P. J. Heaney, D. R. Veblen, Z. Z. Sheng, A. El Ali, and A. M. Hermann (1988)  100 K superconducting phases in the Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O system. Physical Review Letters 60, 1657-1659. [pdf]

85.   Meng, R. L., P. H. Hor, Y. Y. Sun, Z. J. Huang, L. Gao, Y. Y. Xue,  Y. Q. Wang, J. Bechtold, C. W. Chu, R. M. Hazen, C. T. Prewitt, R. J. Angel,  N. L. Ross, L. W. Finger, C. G. Hadidiacos (1988)  The 120K-superconducting phase in Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O.  Modern Physics Letters B2 (Singapore), 543-549. [pdf]

86.   Hazen, R. M. and Z. D. Sharp (1988) Compressibility of sodalite and scapolite.  American Mineralogist 73, 1120-1122. [pdf]

87.   Angel, R. J., T. Gasparik, N. L. Ross, L. W. Finger, C. T. Prewitt and R. M. Hazen (1988) The structure of silica-rich sodium pyroxene; a new phase with six-coordinated silicon. Nature 335, 156-158. [pdf]

88.   Sheng, Z. Z., A. M. Hermann, D. C. Vier, S. Schultz, S. B. Oseroff, D. J. George and R. M. Hazen (1988) Superconductivity in the Tl-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Physical Review B38, 7074-7076. [pdf]

89.   Finger, L. W., J. Ko, R. M. Hazen, T. Gasparik, R. J. Hemley, C. T. Prewitt, and D. J. Weidner (1989) Crystal chemistry of phase B and an anhydrous analogue: implications for water storage in the upper mantle. Nature 341, 140-142. [pdf]

90.   Hazen, R. M., L. W. Finger, H. K. Mao and R. J. Hemley (1989) High-pressure crystal chemistry and amorphization of alpha-quartz. Solid State Communications 72, 507-511. [pdf]

91.   Hazen, R. M., L. W. Finger and D. E. Morris (1989) Crystal structure of DyBa2Cu4O8: A new 77 K bulk superconductor. Applied Physics Letters 54, 1057-1059. [pdf]

92.   Hazen, R. M. and L. W. Finger (1989) High-pressure crystal chemistry of andradite and pyrope: revised procedures for high-pressure diffraction experiments.  American Mineralogist 74, 352-359. [pdf]

93.   Angel, R. J., L. W. Finger, R. M. Hazen, M. Kanzaki, D. J. Weidner, R. C. Liebermann, and D. R. Veblen (1989) Structure and twinning of single-crystal MgSiO3 garnet synthesized at 17 GPa and 1800oC. American Mineralogist 74, 509-512. [pdf]

94.   Finger, L. W., R. M. Hazen, and R. J. Hemley (1989) BaCuSi2O6:  A new cyclosilicate with four-membered rings. American Mineralogist 74, 952-955. [pdf]

95.   McCormick, C. T., R. M. Hazen, and N. L. Ross (1989) Compressibility of omphacite to 60 kbar: Role of vacancies. American Mineralogist 74, 1287-1292. [pdf]

96.   Ross, N. L. and R. M. Hazen (1989) Single-crystal diffraction study of MgSiO3 perovskite from 77 to 400 K. Physics and Chemistry Minerals 16, 415-420. [pdf]

97.   Morris, D. E., J. H. Nickel, J. Y. T. Wei, N. G. Asmar, J. S. Scott, U. M. Scheven, C. T. Hultgren, A. G. Markelz, R. M. Hazen, J. E. Post, P. J. Heaney and D. R. Veblen (1989) Eight new high temperature superconductors. Physical Review B39, 7347-7350. [pdf]

98.   Hazen, R. M. (1990) Crystal structures of high-temperature superconductors.  In Physical Properties of High-Temperature Superconductors II, D.M. Ginsberg, ed., Chapter 3, pp. 121-198, World Scientific, New Jersey. [pdf]

99.   Ross, N. L., and R. M. Hazen (1990) High-pressure crystal chemistry of MgSiO3 perovskite. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 17, 228-237. [pdf]

100.   Hazen, R. M., J. Zhang, and J. Ko (1990) Effects of Fe/Mg on the compressibility of synthetic wadsleyite: beta-(Mg1-xFex)2SiO4(x0.25). Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 17, 416-419. [pdf]

101.   Hemley, R. J., H. K. Mao, L. W. Finger, A. P. Jephcoat, R. M. Hazen, and C. S. Zha (1990) Equation of state of solid hydrogen and deuterium from single-crystal X-ray diffraction to 26.5 GPa. Physical Review B42, 6458-6470. [pdf]

102.   Ross, N. L., J. F. Shu, R. M. Hazen, and T. Gasparik (1990) High-pressure crystal chemistry of stishovite. American Mineralogist 75, 739-747. [pdf]

103.   Angel, R. J., N. L. Ross, L. W. Finger, and R. M. Hazen (1990) Ba3CaCuSi6O17:  A new {lB,11} {4Si6O17} chain silicate. Acta Crystallographica C46, 2028-2030. [pdf]

104.   Ross, N.L. and R.M.Hazen (1991) High-pressure crystal chemistry of MgSiO3 perovskite. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 17, 228-237. [pdf]

105.   Finger, L. W., R. M. Hazen, and C. T. Prewitt (1991) Crystal structures of Mg12Si4O19(OH)2 (Phase B) and Mg14Si5O24 (Phase AnhB). American Mineralogist 76, 1-7. [pdf]

106.   Finger, L.W. and R.M. Hazen (1991) Crystal chemistry of six-coordinated silicon:  A key to understanding the earth's deep interior. Acta Crystallographica B47, 561-580. [pdf]

107.   Sheng, Z.Z., D.X.Gu, Y.Xin, D.O.Pederson, L.W.Finger, C.G.Hadidiacos, and R.M.Hazen (1991) A new 1212-type phase: Cr-substituted TlSr2CaCu2O7 with Tc up to about 110 K. Modern  Physics Letters B5, 635-642. [pdf]

108.   Jeanloz, R., and R.M.Hazen (1991) Finite strain analysis of relative compressibilities: Application to the high-pressure wadsleyite phase as an illustration. American Mineralogist 76, 1765-1768. [pdf]

109.   Hazen, R.M., L.W.Finger, and J.Ko (1992) Crystal chemistry of Fe-bearing anhydrous phase B: Implications for transition zone mineralogy. American Mineralogist 77, 217-220. [pdf]

110.   McCammon, C., J.M.Zhang, R.M.Hazen, and L.W.Finger (1992) High-pressure crystal chemistry of cubanite, CuFe2S3. American Mineralogist 77, 937-944. [pdf]

111.   Hazen, R.M. (1993) The New Alchemists: Breaking through the barriers of high-pressure research.  New York, Doubleday, 286 p. 

112.   Hazen, R.M. (1993) Comparative compressibility of silicate spinels: anomalous behavior of (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. Science 259, 206-209 and cover. [pdf]

113.   Jeanloz, R., and R.M.Hazen (1993) Composition limits of FeO and the Earth's lower mantle. Science 261, 923-924. [pdf]

114.   Kudoh, Y., L.W.Finger, R.M.Hazen, C.T.Prewitt, M.Kanzaki, and D.R.Veblen (1993) Phase E: A high-pressure hydrous silicate with unique crystal chemistry.  Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 19, 357-360. [pdf]

115.   Zhang, J.M., J.Ko, R.M.Hazen, and C.T.Prewitt (1993) High-pressure crystal chemistry of KAlSi3O8 hollandite. American Mineralogist 78, 493-499. [pdf]

116.   Schultz, A.J., U.Geiser, H.H.Wang, A.M.Kini, J.M.Williams, L.W.Finger, and R.M.Hazen (1993) Single-crystal x-ray diffraction evidence for a high-pressure structural phase transition in the organic superconductor k-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl.  Physica C208, 277-285. [pdf]

117.   Finger, L.W., R.M.Hazen, J.M.Zhang, J.Ko, and A. Navrotsky (1993) The effect of Fe on the crystal structure of wadsleyite beta-(Mg1-xFex)2SiO4, 0.00<x<0.40.  Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 19, 361-368. [pdf]

118.   Hazen, R.M., L.W.Finger, and J.Ko (1993) Effects of pressure on Mg-Fe ordering in an orthopyroxene synthesized at 11.3 GPa and 1600oC. American Mineralogist 78, 1337-1340. [pdf]

119.   Hazen, R.M., R.T.Downs, L.W.Finger, and J.Ko (1993) Crystal chemistry of ferromagnesian silicate spinels: Evidence for Mg-Si disorder. American Mineralogist 78, 1320-1323. [pdf]

120.   Hazen, R.M., D.C.Palmer, L.W.Finger, G.D.Stuckey, W.T.A.Harrison, and T.E.Gier (1994) High-pressure crystal chemistry and phase transition of RbTi2(PO4)3. Journal of Physics of Condensed Matter 6, 1333-1334. [pdf]

121.   Finger, L.W., R.M.Hazen, R.L.Meng, and C.W.Chu (1994) Crystal chemistry of HgBa2CaCu2O6+d and HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+d: single crystal x-ray results. Physica C226, 216-221. [pdf]

122.   Hazen, R.M., R.T.Downs, L.W.Finger, P.G.Conrad, and T.Gasparik (1994) Crystal chemistry of Ca-bearing majorite. American Mineralogist 79, 581-584. [pdf]

123.   Hazen, R.M., R.T.Downs, P.G.Conrad, L.W.Finger, and T.Gasparik (1994) Comparative compressibilities of majorite-type garnets.  Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 21, 344-349. [pdf]

124.   Filatov, S.K., and R.M.Hazen (1994) High-temperature and high-pressure crystal chemistry. In Advanced Mineralogy, A.S. Marfunin, editor. Volume 1, pp.76-89.  New York: Springer-Verlag. 

125.   Downs, R.T., R.M.Hazen, and L.W.Finger (1994) The high-pressure crystal chemistry of low albite and the origin of the pressure dependency of Al/Si ordering.  American Mineralogist 79, 1042-1052. [pdf]

126.   Schultz, A.J., H.H.Wang, J.M.Williams, L.W.Finger, R.M.Hazen, C.Rovira, and M.H.Whangbo (1994) X-ray diffraction and electronic band structure study of organic superconductor k-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl at pressures up to 28 kbar.  Physica C234, 300-306. [pdf]

127.   Finger, L.W., R.M.Hazen, and B.A.Fursenko (1995) Refinement of the crystal structure of BaSi4O9 in the benitoite form.  Journal of the Physical Chemistry of Solids 56, 1389-1393. [pdf]

128.   Downs, R.T., R.M.Hazen, L.W.Finger, and T.Gasparik (1995) Crystal chemistry of lead aluminosilicate hollandite: a new high-pressure synthetic phase with octahedral Si.  American Mineralogist 80, 937-940. [pdf]

129.   Hazen, R.M., R.T.Downs, and L.W.Finger (1996) High-pressure crystal chemistry of LiScSiO4, an olivine with nearly isotropic compression. American Mineralogist 81, 327-340. [pdf]

130.   Hazen, R.M., R.T.Downs, and L.W.Finger (1996) High-pressure framework silicates. Science 272, 1769-1771. [pdf]

131.   Hazen, R.M., and A. Navrotsky (1996) Effects of pressure on order-disorder reactions.  American Mineralogist 81, 1021-1035. [pdf]

132.    Yang, H., R.M.Hazen, R.T.Downs, and L.W.Finger (1997) Structural change associated with the incommensurate-normal phase transition in akermanite, Ca2MgSi2O7, at high pressure. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 24, 510-519. [pdf]

133.   Hazen, R.M., H.Yang, C.T.Prewitt, and T.Gasparik (1997) Crystal chemistry of superfluorous phase B (Mg10Si3O14F4): Implications for fluorine in the mantle.  American Mineralogist 82, 647-650. [pdf]

134.   Yang, H., R.T.Downs, L.W.Finger, R.M.Hazen, and C.T.Prewitt (1997) Compressibility and crystal structure of kyanite, Al2SiO5, at high pressure. American Mineralogist 82, 467-474. [pdf]

135.   Yang, H., R.M.Hazen, L.W.Finger, C.T.Prewitt, and R.T.Downs (1997) Compressibility and crystal structure of sillimanite, Al2SiO5, at high pressure. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 25, 39-47. [pdf]

136.   Hazen, R.M., and H.Yang (1997) Increased compressibility of pseudobrookite-type MgTi2O5 caused by cation disorder. Science 277, 1965-1967. [pdf]

137.   Yang, H., R.M.Hazen, C.T.Prewitt, L.W.Finger, R.Lu, and R.J.Hemley (1998) High-pressure single-crystal x-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopic studies of the C2/m-P21/m phase transition in cummingtonite. American Mineralogist 83, 288-299. [pdf]

138.   Yang, H., and R.M.Hazen (1998) Crystal chemistry of cation order-disorder in pseudobrookite-type MgTi2O5. Journal of Solid State Chemistry 138, 238-244. [pdf]

139.   Hazen, R.M. (1999) The Diamond Makers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 236 p.

140.   Yang, H., and R.M.Hazen (1999) Comparative high-pressure crystal chemistry of karrooite, MgTi2O5, with different ordering states. American Mineralogist 84, 130-137. [pdf]

141.   Yang, H., L.W.Finger, P.G.Conrad, C.T.Prewitt, and R.M.Hazen (1999) A new pyroxene structure at high pressure: Single-crystal X-ray and Raman study of the Pbcn-P21 phase transition in protopyroxene. American Mineralogist 84, 245-256. [pdf]

142.   Downs, R.T., H. Yang, R.M. Hazen, L.W.Finger, and C.T.Prewitt (1999) Compressibility mechanisms of alkali feldspars: New data from reedmergnerite.  American Mineralogist 84, 333-340. [pdf]

143.   Ghiorso, M.S., H.Yang, and R.M.Hazen (1999) Thermodynamics of cation ordering in karrooite (MgTi2O5). American Mineralogist 84, 1370-1374. [pdf]

144.   Hazen, R.M., H.Yang, L.W.Finger, and B.A.Fursenko (1999) Crystal chemistry of high-pressure BaSi4O9 in the trigonal (P3) barium tetragermanate structure. American Mineralogist 84, 987-989. [pdf]

145.   Hazen, R.M. and H.Yang (1999) Effects of cation substitution and order-disorder on P-V-T equations of state of cubic spinels. American Mineralogist 84, 1956-1960. [pdf]

146.   Hazen, R.M., M.B.Weinberger, H.Yang, and C.T.Prewitt (2000) Comparative high-pressure crystal chemistry of wadsleyite, beta-(Mg1-xFex)2SiO4, with x = 0 and 0.25. American Mineralogist 85, 770-777. [pdf]

147.   Hazen, R.M., H.Yang, and C.T.Prewitt (2000) High-pressure crystal chemistry of Fe3+-wadsleyite, beta-Fe2.33Si0.67O4. American Mineralogist 85, 778-783. [pdf]

148.   Hazen, R.M. (2000) Isostructural versus equilibrium equations of state. High-Pressure Science and Technology 17, 591-594. [pdf]

149.   Hazen, R.M. and R.T. Downs [Editors] (2000) High-Temperature and High-Pressure Crystal Chemistry. Washington: Mineralogical Society of America, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry Volume 41, viii, 596 p.

150.   Smyth, J.R., Jacobsen, S.D and Hazen, R.M. (2000) Comparative crystal chemistry of dense oxide minerals. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 41, 157-186.

151.   Smyth, J.R., Jacobsen, S.D and Hazen, R.M. (2000) Comparative crystal chemistry of orthosilicates. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 41, 187-210.

152.   Hazen, R.M. and Finger, L.W. (2000) Systematics of high-pressure silicate structures. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 41, 123-156.

153.   Hazen, R.M. and Prewitt, C.T. (2000) Principles of comparative crystal chemistry. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 41, 1-34.

PART II: Selected publications on scientific literacy, science education policy, and unanswered questions. All of these publications relate in part to Earth materials science education. These and other studies led to Hazen’s shift from crystallographic research to investigations of the co-evolution of the geosphere and biosphere (1991-present).

154.   Hazen, R. M., and J. S. Trefil (1991) Science Matters: Achieving Scientific Literacy.  NY:  Doubleday.  Paperback edition, NY: Anchor (1992).

155.   Hazen, R.M., and J.S.Trefil (1991) Achieving geological literacy, Journal of Geological Education 39, 28-30. [pdf]

156.   Hazen, R.M. and J.S.Trefil (1991) Achieving scientific literacy.  Chronicle of Higher Education, April 10, 1991, A44. [pdf]

157.   Hazen, R.M. and J.S.Trefil (1991) Achieving chemical literacy.  Journal of Chemical Education 68, 392-394. [pdf]

158.   Trefil, J.S., and R.M.Hazen (1995) The Sciences: An Integrated Approach, 1st edition.  New York: Wiley, 634 p. Now in its 7th edition (2012).

159.   Hazen, R.M., and M. Singer (1997) Why Aren't Black Holes Black: The Unanswered Questions at the Frontiers of Science.  NY:  Doubleday.

160.   Working Group on Teaching Evolution [13 authors including R.M.Hazen] (1998) Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science.  Washington: National Academy of Sciences Press, 140 p.

Part III: Selected publications on origins of life, mineral surfaces, and the mineralogical co-evolution of the geo- and biospheres (1998-present)

161.   Brandes, J.A., N.Z.Boctor, G.D.Cody, B.A.Cooper, R.M.Hazen, and H.S.Yoder, Jr. (1998) Abiotic nitrogen reduction in the early Earth.  Nature 395, 365-367. [pdf]

162.   Hazen, R.M. (1998) The stuff of life: What was life's first energy source? The Planetary Report 18, 16-17.

163.   Hazen, R.M. (1999) A new perspective on the origin of life.  In Sandra Hackman, Editor: The NOVA Reader: Science at the Turn of the Millennium. NY: TV Books, pp. 48-54.

164.   Cody, G.D., N.Z.Boctor, T.R.Filley, R.M.Hazen, J.H.Scott, H.S.Yoder, Jr. (2000) Primordial carbonylated iron-sulfur compounds and the synthesis of pyruvate.  Science 289, 1337-1340. [pdf]

165.   Brandes, J.A., R.M.Hazen, H.S.Yoder, Jr., and G.D.Cody (2000) Early pre- and post-biotic synthesis of alanine: an alternative to the Strecker synthesis. In: Perspectives in Amino Acid and Protein Geochemistry. (G. A. Goodfriend, M. J. Collins, M. L. Fogel, S. A. Macko, and J. F. Wehmiller, eds.). Oxford University Press, NY. pp. 41-59. [pdf]

166.   Hazen, R.M. (2001) Hazen, R.M. (2001) Emergence and the origin of life. In: G.Pályi (Editor) Fundamentals of Life. New York: Elsevier, pp.41-50.

167.   Cody, G.D., R.M.Hazen, J.A.Brandes, H.J.Morowitz, H.S.Yoder, Jr. (2001) Geochemical roots of autotrophic carbon fixation: Hydrothermal experiments in the system citric acid, H2O-(±FeS)-(±NiS). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 65, 3557-3576. [pdf]

168.    Hazen, R.M. (2001) Life’s rocky start. Scientific American, 284, #4, 76-85. Also included in Best Science Writing of 2001, Natalie Angier (Editor). [pdf]

169.   Hazen, R.M., T.R.Filley and G.A.Goodfriend (2001) Selective adsorption of L- and D-amino acids on calcite: implications for biochemical homochirality.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (US) 98, 5487-5490. [pdf]

170.   Boyce, C.K., R.M.Hazen and A.H.Knoll (2001) Nondestructive, in situ, cellular-scale mapping of elemental abundances including organic carbon in permineralized fossils.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (US) 98: 5970-5974. [pdf]

171.   Hazen, R.M. and E.Roedder (2001) How old are bacteria from the Permian age?  Nature, 411: 155. [pdf]

172.   Sharma, A., J. H. Scott, G.D.Cody, M.L.Fogel, R.M.Hazen, R.Hemley and W.T.Huntress (2002) Microbial activity at gigapascal pressures. Science 295, 1514-1516. [pdf]

173.   Hazen, R.M., N. Boctor, J. A. Brandes, G. D. Cody, R. J. Hemley, A. Sharma and H. S. Yoder, Jr. (2002) High pressure and the origin of life. Journal of the Physics of Condensed Matter 14, 1-6.

174.   Hazen, R.M. and D. S. Sholl.  Chiral selection on inorganic crystalline surfaces. Nature Materials 2, 367-374. [pdf]

175.   Noffke, N., N. Nhleko and R. M. Hazen (2003) Earth’s earliest microbial mats in a siliciclastic marine environment (2.9 Ga Mozaan Group, South Africa). Geology 31, 673-677. [pdf]

176.   Hazen, R. M. (2003) Factors that influence the emergence of complexity in prebiotic geochemical systems.  Astrobiology 2, 599.

177.    Hazen, R. M. and D. S. Sholl (2003b) Origins of biomolecular homochirality: selective molecular adsorption on crystalline surfaces.  Astrobiology2, 598-599. [pdf]

178.   Hazen, R.M., A. Steele, G. D. Cody, M. L. Fogel and W. T. Huntress, Jr. (2003) Biosignatures and abiosignatures.  Astrobiology2, 512-513.

179.   Boyce, C.K., G.D.Cody, M.L.Fogel, R.M.Hazen, C. M. O’D. Alexander and A. H. Knoll (2003) Chemical evidence for cell wall lignifications and the evolution of tracheids in early Devonian plants. International Journal of Plant Science 164, 691-702. [pdf]

180.   Hazen, R.M. (2004) Chiral crystal faces of common rock-forming minerals. In G. Palyi, C. Zucchi and L Cagglioti, Eds. Progress in Biological Chirality. New York: Elsevier, Chapter 11, pp.137-151. [pdf]

181.   Churchill, H., H. Teng and R.M.Hazen (2004) Measurements of pH-dependent surface charge with atomic force microscopy: Implications for amino acid adsorption and the origin of life. American Mineralogist 89, 1048-1055. [pdf]

182.   Cody, G.D., N.Z.Boctor, J.A.Brandes, T.R.Filley, R.M.Hazen and H.S.Yoder, Jr. (2004) Assaying the catalytic potential of transition metal sulfides for prebiotic carbon fixation.  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68, 2185-2196. [pdf]

183.   Downs, R.T. and R.M.Hazen (2004) Chiral indices of crystalline surfaces as a measure of enantioselective potential. Journal of Molecular Catalysis 216, 273-285. [pdf]

184.   Hazen, R. M. (2004)  Mineralogy I: Bones to Mars.  Geotimes 49, #7, 24-26.

185.   Hazen, R. M. (2005) Genesis: The Scientific Quest for Life’s Origin. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press, 339 p. (Softcover edition, 2007). Also Korean edition.

186.   Hazen, R. M. (2005) Genesis: Rocks, minerals and the geochemical origin of life. Elements 1, #3 (June, 2005), 135-137. [pdf]

187.   Hazen, R. M. (2006) Mineral surfaces and the prebiotic selection and organization of biomolecules (Presidential Address to the Mineralogical Society of America). American Mineralogist 91, 1715-1729. [pdf]

188.   Noffke, N., N. Beukes, J. Gutzmer and R. M. Hazen (2006) Spatial and temporal distribution of microbially induced sedimentary structures: a case study from siliciclastic storm deposits of the 2.9 Ga Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa, Precambrian Research 146, 35-44.

189.   Noffke, N., K. A. Eriksson, R. M. Hazen and E. L. Simpson (2006) A new window into Early Archean life:  microbial mats in Earth's oldest siliciclastic tidal deposits (3.2 Ga Moodies Group, South Africa). Geology 34, 253-256.

190.   Asthagiri, A. and R. M. Hazen (2007) An ab initio study of adsorption of alanine on the chiral calcite (2131) surface. Molecular Simulation 33, 343-351. [pdf]

191.   Hazen, R. M., P. Griffin, J. M. Carothers and J. W. Szostak (2007) Functional information and the emergence of biocomplexity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104, 8574-8581. [pdf]

192.   Hazen, R. M. (2007) The emergence of chemical complexity: An Introduction. In L. Zaikowski and J. M. Friedrich [editors], Chemical Evolution I: Chemical Change across Space and Time. American Chemical Society Symposium 981, pp.2-14.

193.   Ertem, G, R. M. Hazen and J. P. Dworkin (2007) Sequence analysis of trimer isomers formed by montmorillonite catalysis in the reaction of binary monomer mixtures. Astrobiology 7, 715-724. [pdf]

194.   Bada, J., B. Fegley Jr., S. L. Miller, A. Lazcano, H. J. Cleaves, R. M. Hazen and J. Chalmers (2007) Debating evidence for the origin of life on Earth. Science 315, 937-938.

195.   Boyce, C. K., C. L. Hotton, M. L. Fogel, G. D. Cody, R. M. Hazen and A. H. Knoll (2007) Devonian landscape heterogeneity recorded by a giant fungus. Geology 35, 399-402. [pdf]

196.   Hazen, R. M. and D. Deamer (2007) Hydrothermal reactions of pyruvic acid:  synthesis, selection, and self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules, Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere 37, 143-152. [pdf]

197.   Hazen, R. M. (2007) Emergence and the origin of life: Presentation, questions and responses. In C. Bertka, N. Roth and M. Shindell (Editors), Workshop Report: Philosophical, Ethical, and Theological Implications of Astrobiology. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science. pp. 30-40.

198.   Hazen, R. M., D.Papineau, W. Bleeker, R.T.Downs, J.Ferry, T.McCoy, D. Sverjensky and H. Yang (2008) Mineral evolution. American Mineralogist 93, 1693-1720.

199.   Ertem, G., R. M. Hazen, A. M. Snellinger, J. P. Dworkin and M. V. Johnston (2008) Sequence- and region-selective formation of RNA-like oligomers by montmorillonite catalysis. International Journal of Astrobiology 7, 1-7. [pdf]

200.   Sverjensky, D.M., C.M. Jonsson, C.L. Jonsson, H.J. Cleaves and R.M. Hazen (2008) Glutamate surface speciation on amorphous titanium dioxide and hydrous ferric oxide. Environmental Science & Technology 42, 6034-6039.

201.   Castro-Puyana, M., A. Salgado, R. M. Hazen, A. L. Crego and M. L. Marina (2008) Investiation of the enantioselective adsorption of 3-carboxy adipic acid on minerals by capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 29, 1548-1555. [pdf]

202.   Brandes, J.A., R.M.Hazen and H.S.Yoder Jr. (2008) Inorganic nitrogen reduction and stability under hydrothermal conditions. Astrobiology 8, 1113-1126. [pdf]

203.   Noffke, N., N. Beukes, D. Bower, R.M.Hazen, D.J.P. Swift (2008) An actualistic perspective into Archean worlds - (cyano-)bacterially induced sedimentary structures in the siliciclastic Nhlazatse Section, 2.9 Ga Pongola Supergroup, South Africa. Geobiology 6 (1), 5–20.

204.   Hazen, R.M. (2009) The emergence of patterning in life’s origin and evolution. International Journal of Developmental Biology, 53, 683-692.

205.   Hazen, R.M. (2009) Emergence and the experimental pursuit of the origin of life. In C. M. Bertka, editor, Exploring the Origins, Extent, and Future of Life: Philosophical, Ethical, and Theological Perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 21-46.

206.   Hazen, R.M., Ewing, R.J and Sverjensky, D.A. (2009) Evolution of uranium and thorium minerals. American Mineralogist 94. 1293-1311.

207.   C.M. Jonsson, C.L. Jonsson, D.A. Sverjensky, H.J. Cleaves II, R.M. Hazen(2009) Attachment of L-glutamate to rutile (a-TiO2): A potentiometric, adsorption and surface complexation study. Langmuir 25, 12127-12135. [pdf]

208.   Hazen, R.M. (2009) Chemical evolution: An introduction. In L. Zaikowski, J.M. Friedrich & S.R. Seidel [editors], Chemical Evolution II: From Origins of Life to Modern Society. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 1025, 3-13.

209.   Grew, E., and Hazen, R. M., 2009, Evolution of the minerals of beryllium, a quintessential crustal element [Abstract]: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 41, no. 7, p. 99.

210.   Grew, E., and Hazen, R. M., 2010a, Evolution of the minerals of beryllium, and comparison with boron mineral evolution [Abstract]: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 42, no. 5, p. 199.

211.   Grew, E., and Hazen, R. M., 2010b, Evolution of boron minerals: Has early species diversity been lost from the geological record? [Abstract]: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 42, no. 5, p. 92.

212.   Hazen, R.M. and J. M. Ferry (2010) Mineral evolution: Mineralogy in the fourth dimension. Elements 6, #1, 9-12. [pdf]

213.   Hazen, R.M. and N. Eldredge (2010) Themes and variations in complex systems. Elements 6, #1, 43-46. [pdf]

214.   Hazen, R.M. (2010) The evolution of minerals. Scientific American 303, #3, 58-65.

215.   Cleaves, H.J. II, C.M. Jonsson, C.L. Jonsson, D.A. Sverjensky, R.M. Hazen (2010) Adsorption of nucleic acid components on rutile (TiO2) surfaces. Astrobiology, 10, 311-323.

216.   Hazen, R.M. and D.A.Sverjensky (2010) Mineral surfaces, geochemical complexities, and the origins of life. In  D.W. Deamer & J.W. Szostak (Editors), The Origins of Life, Cold Springs Harbor Perspectives in Biology, 157-177. [pdf]

217.   C.M. Jonsson, C.L. Jonsson, D.A. Sverjensky, H.J. Cleaves II, R.M. Hazen (2010) Adsorption of L-asparate to rutile (a-TiO2): Experimental and theoretical surface complexation studies. Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta 74, 2356-2367.

218.   K. Marshall-Bowman, S. Ohara, D. A. Sverjensky, R. M. Hazen, and H. J. Cleaves (2010) Catalytic peptide hydrolysis by mineral surface: Implications for prebiotic chemistry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74, 5852-5861. [pdf]

219.   Bahri, S., C.M. Jonsson, C.L. Jonsson, D. Azzolini, D.A. Sverjensky, R.M. Hazen (2011) Adsorption and surface complexation study of L-DOPA on rutile (TiO2) in NaCl solutions. Environmental Science and Technology 45, 3959-3966.

220.   Grew, E. S., Bada, J. L., Hazen, R. M. (2011) Borate minerals and the origin of the RNA world. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere 41, 307-316. [pdf]

221.   Hazen RM, Bekker A, Bish DL, Bleeker W, Downs RT, Farquhar J, Ferry JM, Grew ES, Knoll AH, Papineau D, Ralph JP, Sverjensky DA, Valley JW (2011) Needs and opportunities in mineral evolution research. American Mineralogist 96, 953-963.

222.   Parikh, SJ, JD Kubicki, CM Jonsson, CL Jonsson, RM Hazen, DA Sverjensky, DL Sparks (2011) Evaluating glutamate and aspartate binding mechanisms to rutile (a-TiO2) via ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Langmuir 27, 1778-1787. [pdf]

223.   Cleaves, H.J.II, E. Crapster-Pregont, C.M. Jonsson, C.L. Jonsson, D.A. Sverjensky, R.M. Hazen (2011) The adsorption of short single-stranded DNA oligomers to mineral surfaces. Chemosphere 83, 1560-1567.

224.   Schaffer, B., K.J.T. Livi, D. Azzolini, C.R. Seabourne, K. Sader, M. Shannon, D. Sverjensky, R. Hazen and R. Brydson (2011) Imaging the surface of Rutile by STEM and its implication for organic molecule bonding. Proceedings of the 10th Multinational Congress on Microscopy 2011 (MCM2011), September 4 - 9, Urbino/Italy, pp. 591-592.

225.   Hazen, R.M. (2012) The Story of Earth: The First 4.5 Billion Years, from Stardust to Living Planet. New York: Viking, 306 p.

226.   Hazen, R.M., J.Golden, R.T.Downs, G.Hysted, E.S.Grew, D.Azzolini, D.A.Sverjensky (2012) Mercury (Hg) mineral evolution: A mineralogical record of supercontinent assembly, changing ocean geochemistry, and the emerging terrestrial biosphere. American Mineralogist 97, 1013-1042.

227.   Hazen, R.M. and D.Papineau (2012) Mineralogcial co-evolution of the geosphere and biosphere. In A. H. Knoll, D. E. Canfield and K. O. Konhauser (Editors), Fundamentals of Geobiology. Oxford UK: Wiley-Blackwell, pp.333-350.

228.   Hazen, R.M., Hemley, R.J., and Mangum, A.J. (2012) Carbon in Earth’s interior: storage, cycling, and life. EoS Transactions American Geophysical Union 93, 17-28.

229.   Hazen, R.M. (2012) Geochemical origins of life. In A. H. Knoll, D. E. Canfield and K. O. Konhauser (Editors), Fundamentals of Geobiology. Oxford UK: Wiley-Blackwell, pp.315-332.

230.   Livi, K.J.T., B. Schaffer, D. Azzolini, C.R. Seabourne, K. Sader, M. Shannon, D. Sverjensky, R. Hazen and R. Brydson (2011) Imaging the surface of Rutile by STEM and its implication for organic molecule bonding. Proceedings of the Microscopy Conference 2011 (MC2011), August 28-September 02, Kiel/Germany, page M6_P621.

231.   Cleaves, H.J.II, A.M.Scott, F.C.Hill, J.Leszczynski, N.Sahai, and R.M.Hazen (2012) Mineral-organic interfacial processes: potential roles in the origins of life. Chemical Society Reviews 41, 5502-5525. DOI: 10.1039/c2cs35112a

232.   Lee, N., Hummer, D.R., Sverjensky, D.S., Rajh, T., Hazen, R.M., Steele, A., and Cody, G.D. (2012) Speciation of L-DOPA on nanorutile as a function of pH and surface coverage using surface-enhance Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Langmuir, doi: 10.1021/la303607a.

233.   Hazen, R.M., A.P.Jones, and J.A.Baross [Editors] (2013) Carbon in Earth. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Volume 75. Washington, DC: Mineralogical Society of America, 698 p.

234.   Hazen, R.M. and C.Schiffries, C. (2013) Why carbon? In Hazen, R.M., A.Jones, and J.Baross [Editors]. Carbon in Earth. Washington, DC: Mineralogical Society of America, pp. 1-6.

235.   Hazen, R.M., R.T.Downs, A.Jones, and L.Kah (2013) The mineralogy and crystal chemistry of carbon. In Hazen, R.M., A. Jones, and J.Baross [Editors]. Carbon in Earth. Washington, DC: Mineralogical Society of America, pp. 7-46.

236.   Oganov, A., R.Hemley, R.M.Hazen, and A.Jones (2013) Deep carbon mineralogy. In Hazen, R.M., A. Jones, and J.Baross [Editors]. Carbon in Earth. Washington, DC: Mineralogical Society of America, pp. 47-77.

237.   Hazen, R.M., A.Jones, L.Kah, D.A.Sverjensky (2013) Carbon mineral evolution. In Hazen, R.M., A. Jones, and J.Baross [Editors]. Carbon in Earth. Washington, DC: Mineralogical Society of America, pp. 79-107.

238.   Sephton, M. and R.M.Hazen (2013) On the origins of deep hydrocarbons. In Hazen, R.M., A.Jones, and J.Baross [Editors]. Carbon in Earth. Washington, DC: Mineralogical Society of America, pp. 449-465.

239.   Golden, J., M.McMillan, R.T.Downs, G.Hystad, H.J.Stein, A.Zimmerman, D.A.Sverjensky, J.Armstrong, R.M.Hazen (2013) The Great Subsurface Oxidation “Event”: Evidence from Re Variations in Molybdenite (MoS2). Earth and Planetary Science Letters, in press.

240.   Hazen, R.M., Sverjensky, D.A., Azzolini, D., Bish, D.L., Elmore, S., Hinnov, L., and Milliken, R.E. (2013) Clay mineral evolution. American Mineralogist, in final revision.

241.   Hazen, R.M. (2013) Paleomineralogy of the Hadean Eon: A preliminary list. American Journal of Science, in press.

242.   Hazen, R.M. (2013) Mineral evolution. In McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology 2013. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp.247-249.

243.   Lee, N., D.I.Foustoukos, D.A.Sverjensky, G.D.Cody, and R.M.Hazen (2013) Hydrogen enhances the stability of amino acids in hydrothermal environments. In revision.

244.   Klochko, K., D.S.Sverjensky, G.D.Cody, and R.M.Hazen (2013) Why ribose? Competitive adsorption of pentose sugars on rutile. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, in revision.

245.   Villegas-Jimenez, A., Hazen, R.M., and Sverjensky, D.A. (2013) A high-accuracy titration approach for the determination of thermodynamic constants in multiphase carbonate systems. Analytical Chemistry, in review.

246.   Lee, N., Foustoukos, D.I., Sverjensky, D.A., Cody, G.D., and Hazen, R.M. (2013) Redox state influences the stability of amino acids under hydrothermal conditions. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, in review.

247.   Grew, E.S., and Hazen, R.M. (2013) Evolution of the minerals of beryllium. Stein, in press.

PART IV. Articles in the Year Book of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (1977-1991) 

C1. Finger, L.W. and R.M.Hazen (1977) High-pressure crystal structures of the spinel polymorphs of Fe2SiO4 and Ni2SiO4Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 76, 504-505.

C2. Hazen, R.M., H.K.Mao and P.M.Bell (1977) Comparison of absorption spectra of lunar and terrestrial olivines.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 76, 508-512.

C3. Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1977) Compressibility and crystal structure of Angra dos Reis fassaite to 52 kbar.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 76, 512-515.

C4. Hazen, R.M., P.M.Bell and H.K.Mao (1977) Polarized absorption spectra of Angra dos Reis fassaite to 50 kbar.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 76, 515-516.

C5. Finger, L.W. and R.M.Hazen (1977) Crystal structure and compressibility of ruby to 80 kbar.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 76, 525-528.

C6. Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1977) Linear compressibilities of layer minerals.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 76, 529-531.

C7. Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1977) Modification in high-pressure single-crystal diamond cell techniques.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 76, 655-656.

C8. Spear, F.S. and R.M.Hazen (1978) Sodium trioctahedral mica: a possible new rock-forming silicate from the Post Pond Volcanics, Vermont.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 77, 808-812.

C9. Hazen, R.M., L.W.Finger and T.Yagi (1978) Crystal structure and compressibility of MnF2 to 15 kbar.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 77, 841-842.

C10. Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1978) Relationships between crystal structure and compressibility in ionic crystals.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 77, 848-850.

C11. Finger, L.W. and R.M.Hazen (1978) Refined occupancy factors for synthetic Mn-Mg pyroxmangite and rhodonite.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 77, 850-851.

C12. Hazen, R.M. P.M.Bell and H.K.Mao (1978) Systematic variation of pyroxene absorption spectra with composition.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 77, 851-855.

C13. Bell, P.M., H.K.Mao and R.M.Hazen (1978) Luna 24 glass fragments: a study of soil samples recovered from the Russian Luna 24 mission to Mare Crisium.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 77, 855-856.

C14. Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1979) Studies in high-pressure crystallography.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 78, 632-636.

C15. Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1979) A high-temperature diamond pressure cell for single-crystal studies.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 78, 658-659.

C16. Hazen, R.M. (1979) Workshop on heating the diamond-anvil, high-pressure cell.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 78, 683-684.

C17. Hazen, R.M., H.K.Mao, L.W.Finger and P.M.Bell (1980) Crystal structures and compression of Ar, Ne, and CH4 at 20oC to 90 kbar.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 79, 348-351.

C18. Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1980) Crystal structure of forsterite to 40 kbar.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 79, 364-367.

C19. Mao, H.K., R.M.Hazen, P.M.Bell and J.Wittig (1980) Evidence for a localized 4f-shell breakdown in praseodymium under pressure.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 79, 380-384.

C20. Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1980) High-temperature diamond anvil cell for single-crystal studies.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 79, 406-409.

C21. Hazen, R.M., H.K.Mao, L.W.Finger and P.M.Bell (1981) Irreversible unit-cell volume changes of wustite single crystals quenched from high pressure.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 80, 274-277.

C22. Hazen, R.M. (1981) Systematic variation of bulk modulus of wustite with stoichiometry.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 80, 277-280.

C23. Zou, G., L.W.Finger, R.M.Hazen, P.M.Bell and H.K.Mao (1981) Isothermal equations of state for neon and argon.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 80, 295-299.

C24. Finger, L.W. and R.M.Hazen (1981) Refinement of the crystal structure of an iron-rich kornerupine.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 80, 370-373.

C25. Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1981) Crystal structure of diopside at high temperature and pressure.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 80, 373-376.

C26. Hazen, R.M. and M.H.Hazen, compilers (1981) Indices of the Annual Reports of the Director, Geophysical Laboratory, 1905-1980.  Washington:  Carnegie Institution of Washington, 143 p.

C27. Hughes, J.M., L.W.Finger and R.M.Hazen (1981) The crystal structure of bannermanite.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 80, 379-380.

C28. Ralph, R.L., R.M.Hazen and L.W.Finger (1981) Cell parameters of orthoenstatite at high temperature and pressure.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 80, 376-379.

C29. Pinckney, L.R., L.W.Finger, R.M.Hazen and C.W.Burnham (1981) Crystal structure of pyroxmangite at high temperature.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 80, 380-384.

C30. Hazen, R.M. (1982) PT crystallographic study of the gillespite I-II phase transition.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 81, 380-384.

C31. Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1982) A reversible phase transition in sodium tungstate perovskite at 12 kbar.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 81, 384-386.

C32. Finger, L.W., R.M.Hazen and J.Hughes (1982) Crystal structure of monoclinic ilvaite.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 81, 386-388.

C33. Sharpe, M.R., T.N.Irvine, B.O.Mysen and R.M.Hazen (1983) Density and viscosity characteristics of melts of Bushveld chilled margin rocks.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 82, 300-305.

C34. Hazen, R.M., L.W.Finger and M.Barton (1983) High-pressure crystal structures and compressibilities of bertrandite, beryl and euclase.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 82, 357-359.

C35. Hazen, R.M. (1983) Compressibility and high-pressure pleochroism of CaCr2+Si4O10Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 82, 359-361.

C36. Hazen, R.M. and M.R.Sharpe (1983) Radiographic determination of the positions of platinum spheres in density-viscosity studies of silicate melts.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 82, 428-430.

C37. Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1983) Anomalous compressibility of zeolite 4A in several pressure media.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 82, 361-363.

C38. Hazen, R.M. and L.W.Finger (1991) Predicted high-pressure mineral structures with octahedral silicon.  Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 1990-91, 101-107.

C39. Zhang, J.M., R.M.Hazen and J.Ko (1991) High-pressure crystal chemistry of iron-free wadsleyite, beta-Mg2SiO4Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 1990-91, 115-120.